14

You could say that Thomas Hardy's work became more miserable as time went on; however, this is not explicitly true as even his earliest work was riddled with tragedy, including A Pair of Blue Eyes, Hardy's third book, written before his fourth book Far From the Madding Crowd, in which the narrative's heroine, Elfride, is rejected by her fiancé and dies in ...


10

I think the answer will become clear if you re-read the passage (starting from the beginning of the chapter so that you have the full context) and carefully distinguish the points of view. When I do this, I interpret the passage as follows. Jude's point of view: He ascended the ladder to have one more look at the point the men had designated, and perched ...


9

It was mainly due to the Victorian interpretations of several events and actions in the novel and subsequent comments from contemporary critics. Firstly, Tess committed murder when she killed Alec. Although the reader of course sympathises with Tess after all Alec did to her, it was still murder, and therefore immoral, in the eyes of Victorian law and hence ...


8

The 'certain obliterator of historic records' is referring to a real person. It is widely thought that it was George Edmund Street, who was a Gothic revival architect. Hardy worked for revival architects before his literary career progressed (he met his wife, Emma Gifford, on one of his architectural employments), so Street would have been the kind of ...


7

TL;DR: Galilee, where Jesus lived and preached, is a metonym for Christian morality; Cyprus, where Aphrodite emerged from the sea, for pagan sexuality. Context Even if the references are obscure, I think it’s possible to figure out the meaning from the context. At the end of book II chapter II of Jude the Obscure, Jude Fawley is struggling between his ...


7

Searching a Project Gutenberg etext of Jude the Obscure, I found a dozen other instances of "med", such as these: "Now don't you interrupt, my boy. Never interrupt your senyers. Move the fore hoss aside, Bobby; here's som'at coming… You must mind that I be a-talking of the college life. 'Em lives on a lofty level; there's no gainsaying it, though I myself ...


6

The twist of Liza-Lu and Angel together at the end of Tess of the d'Urbervilles is odd, like you say, and does seem somewhat unnecessary. However, there are some points which can explain why Hardy added it. Firstly, it contributed some sort of resolvement to the ending. Tess is given the death penalty for her murder of Alec. We see this almost through Liza-...


6

It was the policy of Cornhill Magazine to publish all articles and serializations without a byline, so Hardy surely had no choice in the matter. If you look at volume 29 (January–June 1874), you’ll see that in the same year the magazine included not only Far from the Madding Crowd, but also Young Brown: or, the Law of Inheritance (by Eustace Clare Grenville ...


5

This is an impossible question to answer definitively without a supporting quote from the author. No such quote appears to exist: I haven't been able to source anything in which Hardy discusses his religious or racial views. However, we can place this in the wider context of the time Hardy was born in 1840, at which point acceptance of Jews in British ...


5

TL;DR: (i) Keats’ biographer Sidney Colvin consulted Hardy, not as an expert on Keats, but rather as an expert on Lulworth Cove. (ii) Hardy (wrongly) believed that Keats had written ‘Bright Star’ at Lulworth Cove. Keats and Severn Keats suffered from tuberculosis, and in 1820 his doctors advised him to move abroad to a warmer climate. On 17 September 1820 ...


5

‘Remembrance Day’ is Hardy’s fictional version of Encaenia, the ceremony at which the University of Oxford awards honorary degrees to distinguished men and women and commemorates its benefactors. University of Oxford. ‘Encaenia’. The correspondences are: ‘Remembrance’ is synonymous with ‘commemoration’. Christminster confers honorary degrees on ...


5

As user Fabjaja notes in the comments, Wessex was originally a kingdom in Anglo-Saxon Britain. While some of its peers survive in modern nomenclature (such as the county of Essex), Wessex had not. The name would have been largely unfamiliar to readers in Hardy's time - it is almost entirely thanks to his writing that it re-entered the modern vocabulary. ...


5

This is part of a wider Hardy theme of romanticising the old-fashioned ruralness of the SW England countryside and disdaining the march of modernity. Such commentary appears a lot in Hardy's writing. In fact, the very idea of his Wessex is predicated on his desire to romanticise rural life in southwest England. As mentioned in this answer, he was trying to ...


4

There isn't a direct relationship, but here's a map drawn by Bertam Windle based on his correspondence with Hardy: From Windle's book, The Wessex of Thomas Hardy, regarding Thomas Hardy's input into the book: Without Mr. Hardy's generous assistance, these pages must have been much less complete than it is hoped they will be found to be. Nor, without the ...


4

I think your instincts are very good in choosing a trochee for the beginning of the third line. Emphasizing the "I" is meaningful The poet sets up this line by musing that if a person said the animals are kneeling, the poet would go out in the darkness to see. Emphasizing "should" renders the line robotic Meter is often used to set up a variation in ...


4

You could scan the second to last line as three trochees followed by an iamb. "In the lón|ely bár|ton by yón|der cóomb| Our chíld|hood úsed| to knów|," Í should| gó with| hím in| the glóom|, Hóping| it míght| be só|. I don't believe the straight iambic scansion works anywhere near as well. It puts stress on should, which is a relatively unimportant ...


4

If you enter the google books search "part second" you will see this construction was a perfectly normal practice in the 1700 and 1800s. Here are some of the hits I got: to The Ploughboy: A Poem, Part Second (W. Cook, 1855), to Sadlier's Catholic first reader: part second, Part 2 (James A. Sadlier, 1883), and to Zoonomia ; Or, the Laws of Organic Life: Part ...


4

Short of finding a definitive statement from Hardy, it is impossible to be sure. But it is very likely that A Few Crusted Characters was influenced by The Canterbury Tales. I have three lines of evidence. First, we know that Hardy was familiar with The Canterbury Tales. Here's JoAnna Stephens Mink, in "Love, deception, and disguise in A Few Crusted ...


4

Doctor of Divinity. The context is Jude ambitiously planning out his future life as an academic clergyman in Christminster (Oxford). From the same passage: And then he continued to dream, and thought he might become even a bishop by leading a pure, energetic, wise, Christian life. [...] ["]Yes, Christminster shall be my Alma Mater; and I'll be her ...


4

Specifically ‘med’ represents (West) Berkshire dialect. Desmond Hawkins (1989), Hardy at Home: The People and Place of His Wessex: As [Hardy’s] practice developed he tended to simplify and standardize the conventions he needed to convey the forms of rustic speech. To suggest the distinctive sound of a Devonshire voice he concentrated on a single feature, ...


3

Far From the Madding Crowd largely takes place in the countryside, and the literal meaning of the title, a place far away from the crazed/wild crowd, evokes an atmosphere of calm and tranquillity. This was partly a reaction of Hardy's on account of the birth of industrialisation around the time of writing, when the English countryside was a refuge from the ...


3

My interpretation is that Poorgrass gets a ha’penny bonus if the pig-killing is a ‘bad one’. Hardy is known to have been opposed to the prevalence of inhumane pig slaughter and in particular the practice of slow-bleeding. We can see this represented in Jude’s revulsion at the cruelty of Arabella’s preferred methods in Jude the Obscure. In ‘Food in the ...


3

From the preface to my edition of the book: "For a novel addressed by a man to men and woman of full age: which attempts to deal unaffectedly with the fret and fever, derision and disaster, that may press in the wake of the strongest passion know to humanity; to tell, without mincing of words, of a deadly war between flesh and spirit; and to point the ...


3

I think this is more of a general commentary on the state of the English countryside at the time, rather than a reference to any particular person. Such commentary appears a lot in Hardy's writing. In fact, the very idea of his Wessex is predicated on his desire to romanticise rural life in southwest England. As mentioned in this answer, he was trying to ...


3

The Dynasts is written in the form of a play, but it is immensely long (“three parts, nineteen acts, and one hundred and thirty scenes”) and is written without any consideration for the practicalities involved in staging: Hardy’s own Preface says that it is “intended simply for mental performance, and not for the stage”. For example, part one, act first, ...


2

In the winter, the Parish Clerk goes to tea with the Methodists. The vicar turns a blind eye to this: in the winter-time, when it was too dark for the vicar to observe [...] which [...] he was never anxious to do.


1

No, Hardy is not being anti-Semitic here. The passage you quote is a satire against the praying man: it's about how we rationalize why prayer doesn't work. The man's prayers weren't answered, so he assumes it's because his pants were tailored by a Jew.


1

Is this a printing error? A style that I've never seen before? Something else? Definitely not a printing error; it's a style you've never seen before. Jude the Obscure isn't even the only Thomas Hardy novel to use this type of style; see also Tess of the d'Urbervilles, which is divided into "Phase the First", "Phase the Second", etc. The famous Coleridge ...


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