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10

They were de jure (officially, supposedly, on paper, in theory) ruled over by the king. There are many terms to express this meaning. From Merriam Webster on "in name": used with a following statement to say that something is so by name or title but that is not the way things really are Nowadays, the Latin term de jure (as opposed to de facto meaning "...


6

'Flowin bole' Literally 'Flowing bowl', but figuratively 'alcohol', as in the traditional folksong 'Come Landlord Fill the Flowing Bowl'. Come landlord fill the flowing bowl Until it doth run over. Come landlord fill the flowing bowl Until it doth run over. For tonight we'll merry merry be For tonight we'll merry merry be For tonight we'll ...


4

The important bit of this sentence is not “dash about”, but “motor-cars”. The point being that the character ‘Old Popper’ had introduced his tale with the claim that “The thing actually happened to me—years ago, many years ago. … It happened when I was quite a youngster, and was working as a clerk in a solicitor’s office.” When would this have been? ...


3

"Dash" can mean a lot of things, but I think here connotes mostly "movement", as if the question was "did commercial travelers go from place to place in motorcars?", with an added side-connotation of doing so stylishly. I asked Google books for "dash about town" and came up with instances like this recent one (from Juliet Clutton-Brock's 1992 Horse) In ...


2

This is from the last sentence of the first part of the Prologue in The Fellowship of the Ring, subtitled "Concerning Hobbits". Tolkien wrote this section as a bridge between the light storytelling style of The Hobbit and the more serious style of The Lord of the Rings. It serves as a bit of character development, characterizing the stodgy, phlegmatic ...


2

Doughty means "brave and persistent". At bay means "Forced to face or confront one's attackers or pursuers; cornered." The meaning of "killing nothing" would be clear; but instead of absolutely "nothing", Tolkien writes "nothing that lived": in other words, they do not kill anything that is alive. (This is actually a pleonasm, since if you kill something it ...


2

A comparable situation today: Canadians are in name the subjects of Queen Elizabeth of England, but are in fact ruled by their own parliament and prime minister. The meaning is the Queen is their ruler only as long as she doesn't try to actually rule them. (The same is more or less the case in England itself, but is even more clear in Canada)


2

It's an example of emphasis by repetition. A major theme of the Crow cycle is how empirical methods of understanding the cosmos are doomed to failure in a spiritual sense. It doesn't matter how well science untangles the mysteries of nature: it brings humanity no nearer to being able to deal with the big questions of life and death. Owl's song is an ...


2

In a nutshell, "subject races" means people of colour who were subjects of the British Empire. Wells uses the term ironically. There is a passage near the beginning of Chapter 4 that makes this clear: Instead of the sturdy establishment in prejudice of Bert's grandfather, to whom the word “Frenchified” was the ultimate term of contempt, there flowed ...


2

It's flowery description of Shakespeare's head. For those unfamiliar with his work, the most famous image of Shakespeare is of a bald man with facial hair. Since most men of his era cultivated moustache and beard, it's the baldness that stands out. Our sour cream walls, donations. The pictures and posters on the pale walls of the classroom are donated:...


2

I can't help you with "editorial novelist," but I do know where "dude" comes from. "Dude" today is just some guy, usually a friend or buddy. It is also used as friendly greeting. "Dude" used to be way different though. A dude was like a dandy - a fancy dresser more concerned with appearance than anything else. A "literary dude" is therefore a writer or ...


1

It means they started to record their history and the passing of time. From Lexico (powered by Oxford Dictionaries) on "reckoning": The action or process of calculating or estimating something. This fits with the rest of the sentence: "legend [...] first becomes history" when the telling of stories about past events and heroes becomes more concrete by ...


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