16

No he did not! The process can be traced back at least to Thomas Carlyle, who in Sartor Resartus (1833–34) publishes a summary and a critique, à la Borges, of the fictional book Clothes, Their Origin and Influence. Let's note that Thomas Carlyle pushed it even further than Borges, publishing the review in a magazine with no mention of its fictional nature! ...


16

Much of J.R.R. Tolkien's work is presented as an abridgment/translation of the "original", usually in Elvish. Much of The Silmarillion is presented as a gloss of epic poems, some of which Tolkien partly wrote, and Lord of the Rings is supposed to be a translation of the Red Book of Westmarch. Dune is similarly a re-telling of stories from books, many of ...


11

The abridgment is part of the overall frame story. The frame story is very different in the book than in the film. The book's frame story is very cynical. It's about the disillusionment of children growing up, and the business of fairy tales. The "abridgment" is one element of that: his realization that the story that was read to him was not, in fact, the ...


8

He really did engage in silver mine prospecting while he lived in Nevada, though he wasn't one to really pick up a shovel and pick and do much actual work. Almost a millionaire twice. In the first instance, he and two partners put a claim on a blind lead of silver in a public mine. You had to put some reasonable amount of work into the mine within 10 days, ...


7

Yes, the device of the good and the bad angel had definitely used before, for example by Christopher Marlowe in The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus. Marlowe's plays are generally hard to date and Doctor Faustus was probably written between 1589 and 1592, while The Merchant of Venice was presumably written between 1596 and 1599, i.e. several years after ...


7

Taking the elements of style in turn: (A) Almost every concrete noun in the poem is used metaphorically, including door, chariots, gate, emperor, mat, nation, valve. (B) You are right that “I’ve known her close the Valves of her attention — Like Stone” contains a simile. There's some ambiguity and ellipsis here: you can read it as “I’ve known her close the ...


7

I think what you are looking for is Literary Naturalism. This began as a reaction to the prevailing modes of surrealism and Romanticism of the period (late nineteenth-century) and was an off-shoot and more advanced form of realism. As such is it often called 'extreme' realism and is somewhat synonymous with the effects of realism; it depicts events and other ...


7

Dr. L. Kip Wheeler's glossary of literary terms defines alliteration as Repeating a consonant sound in close proximity to others, or beginning several words with the same vowel sound. The glossary entry then goes on to provide several examples, from Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel: In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin, Before polygamy was made ...


6

Epistolary novels should help increase reader identification with the writer-protagonists. The format shifts our sense of the weight of the "invisible hand of the author" from the words being written to the presentation of the individual texts. This helps us put the author out of the way, developing an increased sense of agency for those writer-protagonists. ...


6

In Chamber of Secrets (p. 106) we read as follows: Harry looked bemusedly at the photograph Colin was brandishing under his nose. A moving, black-and-white Lockhart was tugging on an arm Harry recognized as his own. He was pleased to see that his photographic self was putting up a good fight and refusing to be dragged into view. As Harry ...


4

This is simply known as third-person narration. This technique is far from new. A notable user of third-person narration was Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico / Commentaries on the Gallic War, written in the first centure BCE. For a slightly older example, see Xenophon's Anabasis, written in the fourth century BCE. Both are autobiographical ...


4

This poem seems to have two meanings here, a literal one and a metaphorical one. Let's look at the last eight lines: We are greater than the Peoples or the Kings—    Be humble, as you crawl beneath our rods!- Our touch can alter all created things,    We are everything on earth—except The Gods!    &...


4

I'm going to use a character well-known in the gothic for this answer: Dracula. Count Dracula is uncanny because he reminds us of a human, yet something is amiss in his appearance. He is simultaneously new and old - new to the story, characters, yet from a time period that goes way back. The uncanny in the gothic is quite simply something that doesn't seem ...


4

If you want the general idea, then it's an "omitted the vulgar language", "ellided over the swearing", or "summarized his insults". But a singular term of art in linguistics for the concept... I don't know of one.


4

In TV Tropes terms, this is called the Narrative Profanity Filter. So, you're writing a book, and one of your characters, for whatever reason, has to swear. Not a problem - unless your intended audience are children or people who are generally against swearing. Is the risk of offending them worth the artistic reward of using exactly the right word? What can ...


3

The rhythm has a double iamb (it is too full), an anapest (o’ the milk), and a ‘feminine’ ending (kindness): x x / / x x / x / x / x It is | too full | o' the milk | of hu- | man kind- | ness ‘Milk’ is a metaphor. The line as a whole is ironic: Macbeth has only just enough kindness to balk at outright murder, and Lady ...


3

In poetry, alliteration requires stressed syllables that begin with the same consonant sound. Nabokov's novel Lolita is written in prose, so we don't need to analyse the metre to determine which syllables are stressed; we only need to know each word's main stress. In Nabokov's first two sentences, we can find two groups of alliterations: based on the "...


3

The book is correct; the last line uses the image a stone but, strictly speaking, not a simile. When Robert Burns writes, "O My Luve's like a red, red rose", he makes a comparison between two things: his love and a rose. In Book IV of Paradise Lost, Milton wrote, (...) As when a prowling wolf, Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey, Watching ...


2

They are related, but have different scope, qualities, and nuance. Sarcasm: Can simply be a statement that is insincere. One can be sarcastic without being ironic, although it often overlaps in modern English usage. (Contemporary teen sarcasm is typically ironic, saying the opposite of what they mean.) Irony: When the literal meaning is counter to the ...


2

Sarcasm and satire are related to each other and share some similarities with irony(quite specifically,verbal irony). Sarcasm is using wit and/or irony to be mocking or to be humorous.The effect of sarcasm is felt because of three things: timing, tone and context. If an expression is totally counter-intuitive and has great wordplay and is basically cutting ...


2

Some preliminary definitions might be in order before identifying whether they're "similes, metaphors, or something else": simile A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g. as brave as a lion). versus metaphor A figure of speech in ...


2

Keep in mind that Twain was often (almost always) more interested in being interesting than in sticking to the sometimes less colorful facts of the matter. He has been described as writing "autobiographical fiction" and "fictional autobiography." So you might find more "truth" about what he experienced in life in "Tom Sawyer" and "Huck Finn" than you will in ...


2

Sartor Resartus was written in 1836. There are examples of earlier imaginaries dating back to John Donne and Rabelais. Donne's The Courtier's Library (1650), is a catalogue of 34 apocryphal works modeled after Rabelais' Library of St Victor, Pantagruel, II, vii (~1532). Together, these two references move the origin of the OPs query back three centuries. ...


2

Lady Macbeth fears that her husband has too much humanity in the sense of "compassion characteristic of humane persons" (Macbeth, edited by A. R. Braunmuller, 1997). Braunmuller points out that the First Folio had "humane" instead of "human" and that 'humane' (= gentle, compassionate) was not distinguished orthographically from 'human' before 1700 (...), ...


2

Regarding your first question, it contains a multitude of different literary devices, but the closest to the "milk of human kindness" is I think a reification. It's defined as a "Complex idea for when you treat something immaterial — like happiness, fear, or evil — as a material thing." [Vocabulary.com] In this case, the "human kindness" is being ...


1

Foreshadowing is not necessarily reference to future events. A foreshadowing is a reference to events which will be revealed later in the story. They're in the future from the point of view of the reader, but not necessarily events which are in the future "in-universe". Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is ...


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