20

Much of J.R.R. Tolkien's work is presented as an abridgment/translation of the "original", usually in Elvish. Much of The Silmarillion is presented as a gloss of epic poems, some of which Tolkien partly wrote, and Lord of the Rings is supposed to be a translation of the Red Book of Westmarch. Dune is similarly a re-telling of stories from books, many of ...


18

No he did not! The process can be traced back at least to Thomas Carlyle, who in Sartor Resartus (1833–34) publishes a summary and a critique, à la Borges, of the fictional book Clothes, Their Origin and Influence. Let's note that Thomas Carlyle pushed it even further than Borges, publishing the review in a magazine with no mention of its fictional nature! ...


13

The abridgment is part of the overall frame story. The frame story is very different in the book than in the film. The book's frame story is very cynical. It's about the disillusionment of children growing up, and the business of fairy tales. The "abridgment" is one element of that: his realization that the story that was read to him was not, in fact, the ...


12

Yes, the device of the good and the bad angel had definitely been used before, for example by Christopher Marlowe in The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus. Marlowe's plays are generally hard to date and Doctor Faustus was probably written between 1587 and 1589, while The Merchant of Venice was presumably written between 1596 and 1599, i.e. several years after ...


9

He really did engage in silver mine prospecting while he lived in Nevada, though he wasn't one to really pick up a shovel and pick and do much actual work. Almost a millionaire twice. In the first instance, he and two partners put a claim on a blind lead of silver in a public mine. You had to put some reasonable amount of work into the mine within 10 days, ...


9

Dr. L. Kip Wheeler's glossary of literary terms defines alliteration as Repeating a consonant sound in close proximity to others, or beginning several words with the same vowel sound. The glossary entry then goes on to provide several examples, from Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel: In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin, Before polygamy was made ...


8

I think what you are looking for is Literary Naturalism. This began as a reaction to the prevailing modes of surrealism and Romanticism of the period (late nineteenth-century) and was an off-shoot and more advanced form of realism. As such is it often called 'extreme' realism and is somewhat synonymous with the effects of realism; it depicts events and other ...


7

Taking the elements of style in turn: (A) Almost every concrete noun in the poem is used metaphorically, including door, chariots, gate, emperor, mat, nation, valve. (B) You are right that “I’ve known her close the Valves of her attention — Like Stone” contains a simile. There's some ambiguity and ellipsis here: you can read it as “I’ve known her close the ...


7

Epistolary novels should help increase reader identification with the writer-protagonists. The format shifts our sense of the weight of the "invisible hand of the author" from the words being written to the presentation of the individual texts. This helps us put the author out of the way, developing an increased sense of agency for those writer-protagonists. ...


7

That rhetorical device is called zeugma. Merriam-Webster defines zeugma as follows: the use of a word to modify or govern two or more words usually in such a manner that it applies to each in a different sense or makes sense with only one (as in "opened the door and her heart to the homeless boy"). Yourdictionary.com provides several examples.


6

In Chamber of Secrets (p. 106) we read as follows: Harry looked bemusedly at the photograph Colin was brandishing under his nose. A moving, black-and-white Lockhart was tugging on an arm Harry recognized as his own. He was pleased to see that his photographic self was putting up a good fight and refusing to be dragged into view. As Harry ...


6

In TV Tropes terms, this is called the Narrative Profanity Filter. So, you're writing a book, and one of your characters, for whatever reason, has to swear. Not a problem - unless your intended audience are children or people who are generally against swearing. Is the risk of offending them worth the artistic reward of using exactly the right word? What can ...


5

I'm going to use a character well-known in the gothic for this answer: Dracula. Count Dracula is uncanny because he reminds us of a human, yet something is amiss in his appearance. He is simultaneously new and old - new to the story, characters, yet from a time period that goes way back. The uncanny in the gothic is quite simply something that doesn't seem ...


4

This is simply known as third-person narration. This technique is far from new. A notable user of third-person narration was Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico / Commentaries on the Gallic War, written in the first centure BCE. For a slightly older example, see Xenophon's Anabasis, written in the fourth century BCE. Both are autobiographical ...


4

This poem seems to have two meanings here, a literal one and a metaphorical one. Let's look at the last eight lines: We are greater than the Peoples or the Kings—    Be humble, as you crawl beneath our rods!- Our touch can alter all created things,    We are everything on earth—except The Gods!    &...


4

The passage appears to use the rhetorical device of aporia: the narrator asks a question expressing a certain doubt ("But can one really call it a life?") and then proceeds to give two possible answers. However, neither of these answers really resolves the question; instead, they read like an elaboration of the doubt expressed by the question. If ...


4

These lines are examples of metaphors - a figure of speech that equates two things for the purposes of comparison or symbolism, without the two being literally the same. The towel on the washing line is not literally a matador's cape, but the poem gives us the image that it is moving in the same way, thanks to the wind. The movement in the wind of each piece ...


3

The rhythm has a double iamb (it is too full), an anapest (o’ the milk), and a ‘feminine’ ending (kindness): x x / / x x / x / x / x It is | too full | o' the milk | of hu- | man kind- | ness ‘Milk’ is a metaphor. The line as a whole is ironic: Macbeth has only just enough kindness to balk at outright murder, and Lady ...


3

In addition to the devices mentioned in the other answers, the phrase "milk of human kindness" also deploys two other devices: Paronomasia, or more simply, a pun. Kindness typically means gentleness, generosity, and/or helpfulness, which is the most readily accessible sense here. But kind can also mean category, as in: What kind of books do you ...


3

There are literary terms for certain types of mispronunciation, but, as far as I know, no literary term that covers all of them. The spoonerism is probably the best-known example. For example, "The Lord is a shoving leopard" instead of "The Lord is a loving shepherd." From a linguistic point of view, a spoonerims is a type of metathesis. An eggcorn "is an ...


3

Sartor Resartus was written in 1836. There are examples of earlier imaginaries dating back to John Donne and Rabelais. Donne's The Courtier's Library (1650), is a catalogue of 34 apocryphal works modeled after Rabelais' Library of St Victor, Pantagruel, II, vii (~1532). Together, these two references move the origin of the OPs query back three centuries. See ...


3

The book is correct; the last line uses the image a stone but, strictly speaking, not a simile. When Robert Burns writes, "O My Luve's like a red, red rose", he makes a comparison between two things: his love and a rose. In Book IV of Paradise Lost, Milton wrote, (...) As when a prowling wolf, Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey, Watching ...


3

In poetry, alliteration requires stressed syllables that begin with the same consonant sound. Nabokov's novel Lolita is written in prose, so we don't need to analyse the metre to determine which syllables are stressed; we only need to know each word's main stress. In Nabokov's first two sentences, we can find two groups of alliterations: based on the "...


3

If you want the general idea, then it's an "omitted the vulgar language", "ellided over the swearing", or "summarized his insults". But a singular term of art in linguistics for the concept... I don't know of one.


3

In 1856, John Ruskin coined the term pathetic fallacy (in Modern Painters, Volume III, Part IV) to denote the attribution of human feelings to inanimate objects. One of the examples he gave comes from the poem The Sands o' Dee by Charles Kingsley: They rowed her in across the rolling foam,— The cruel, crawling foam, The cruel, hungry foam,— Ruskin ...


3

The device of repeating the same idea in different words is called restatement. It's used to provide emphasis and clarity to the idea being expressed. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first inaugural address (1933) furnishes an example: Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it ...


3

There are several related terms and it's not clear what applies without knowing the novel. There's a difference between representing your life story and representing your opinions. An autobiographical novel (Wikipedia) is a fictionalised version of an author's life, possibly with names and other details changed. A semi-autobiographical novel is similar, but ...


3

Three examples of dramatic irony in Macbeth. In act I scene VI, Duncan visits Macbeth’s castle at Inverness and shows no signs of apprehension. Duncan. This castle hath a pleasant seat. The air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses. But the audience knows that Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are planning to murder Duncan. In act II scene ...


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