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1

Love is a very ambiguous word. Ancient Greek philosophy, for example, distinguished several categories of love, including the following: érōs: desire; sensual or passionate love (etymological source of the adjective "erotic"). agapē: unconditional love; also, especially in a Christian context, "the love of God for man and of man for God"....


27

This is Michael Rosen's poem "Nightmare", found in his book Mustard, custard, grumble belly and gravy, which is available to borrow on the Internet Archive: I'm down I'm underground I'm down the Underground Waiting Waiting for a train There's the platform There's the lines There's the tunnel There's the lines. I'll wait down there Down between the ...


1

The rhyme scheme is ABAB ABAB CDCD EE, which, superficially at least, corresponds to three quatrains and a couplet. The rhyme scheme of a Petrarchan sonnet uses two "closed quatrains" for the first eight lines and typically goes ABBA ABBA CDC CDC or ABBA ABBA CDE CDE (with other variations for the sestet). The rhyme scheme of an English or ...


0

The 'ceremony of innocence' is baptism, the ceremony that takes place at the baptismal font, a time of rejoicing. At this baptism, however, it is anything but a joyous occasion as the baptism of innocence is itself 'baptized", drowned in the blood-dimmed tide of mere anarchy that has been loosed upon the world. Powerful imagery, and regrettably, all too ...


5

TL;DR: William Cowper’s “dwell in the midst of alarms” is a re-working of William Wilkie’s “dwell amidst alarms”. Wilkie’s Epigoniad (1757) was an epic poem in heroic couplets telling the story of the Epigoni, the sons of the Seven against Thebes. The phrase “dwell amidst alarms” appears twice. In book III, the Argive hero Diomedes has challenged Leophron, ...


1

Browning is alluding here to the philosophy of Emanuel Swedenborg, a mystical Christian philosopher, who propounded the doctrine of correspondence: Moreover, there is no one thing existing in the created world, which has not correspondence with the things existing in the spiritual world, and which does not thereby, in its manner and measure, represent ...


2

Browning alludes here to the biblical account of the raising of Lazarus in John 11. But the details don’t come from John, in whose account Lazarus’s tomb is closed with a stone (11:38), not a locked door; Jesus calls Lazarus forth (11:43) instead of anointing him with “chrism” (consecrated oil); and there is no mention of Lazarus’s eyes or tongue. There are, ...


4

I assume it is indeed a historical reference. The year 1955 was double relevant to Borges: He had been an anti-Peronist [1], so he welcomed the Revolución Libertadora of 16 September 1955. In fact, the Wikipedia about Borges notes: According to [Borges biographer] Williamson, Borges shouted, "Viva la Patria", until his voice grew hoarse. [2] ...


5

The original German text begins with the following lines: »Wann treffen wir drei wieder zusamm'?«   »Um die siebente Stund', am Brückendamm.«    »Am Mittelpfeiler.« »Ich lösche die Flamm'.« Compare this with the opening lines of the translation by Dorothea Tieck, first published in 1832 (in: Shakspeare's dramatische Werke. Übersetzt von August ...


2

There seems to be a basic misconception in the question: namely, that the narrator of the poem is Eliot herself (or else, why would it be relevant whether Eliot “was an night owl”?). I feel that you wouldn’t make this mistake if it were prose: you wouldn’t read the first sentence of Moby-Dick and ask “why is Melville asking us to ‘call him Ishmael’ when his ...


5

The place you seek is actually better transliterated as "Geumgang-Gul". Geumganggul Cave is a cave located in Seoraksan National Park, in Sokcho, South Korea... It was once a place of worship and contains a Buddha stone. - Wikipedia It's located very far northeast of the country. . You can walk there from a famous temple called the Sinheungsa ...


0

Poetry doesn't have to rhyme or scan or have any of the attributes that we conventionally associate with a "poem". True poetry is something that conveys ideas and feelings that can't be attributed directly to the words. For instance a poem can describe an experience without ever mentioning the author's feelings; yet the reader will end up feeling ...


13

Bwa Bach (“Little Bow”) was a nickname for Morfudd’s husband Cynfrig Cynin, referring perhaps to his crooked or hunched back. His jealousy of Dafydd led to the latter being exiled from his home in Ceredigion (“society and its goods are closed to me”). The lines quoted in the question are: Yn glaer deg, yn eglur dôn. Nac aro di, nac eiriach, Nac ofna er Bwa ...


2

This seems to be a reference to a person, also translated, less poetically, as ‘little hunchback’. The first reference I found was in ‘Bardic museum of primitive British literature and other admirable rarities ’ which translates the poem as: Tell me never resting friend, of the journey on some northern blast, over the dale. Ah, friend, go from Aeron ...


6

When you take a sheet of metal foil and shake it vigorously, the metal sparkles as the light catches it. Here is an example of gold foil being shaken. The left edge of the foil in particular is reminiscent of flames: As you can see, the light glitters and shines off the foil in an active way. That's what Hopkins means: God's grandeur is actively reflected ...


0

Standing at a bus stop waiting for your bus to come is one of the most frustrating and boring activities known to man. The author is saying that it can seem like a thousand years pass.


4

Your speculations in the question about what the contrast might mean are on point. Specifically, the poem moves from grandiose claims to mundane reality. The claims are about the past (recall) or the future (next thousand years); the reality is the present (am waiting). That the day is windy underlines the contrast between reality (cold wind) and the claims (...


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