They are epithets. Specifically, they are stand-alone epithets termed antonomasia.
An epithet, according to the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, is:
A modifier specifying an essential characteristic and appearing with a noun or a proper name to form a phrase. (p. 452)
Greene, Roland, et al., eds. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics....
In 1856, John Ruskin coined the term pathetic fallacy (in Modern Painters, Volume III, Part IV) to denote the attribution of human feelings to inanimate objects. One of the examples he gave comes from the poem The Sands o' Dee by Charles Kingsley:
They rowed her in across the rolling foam,—
The cruel, crawling foam,
The cruel, hungry foam,—
The device of repeating the same idea in different words is called restatement. It's used to provide emphasis and clarity to the idea being expressed. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first inaugural address (1933) furnishes an example:
Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it ...
That link gives this definition:
Initially a prayer or supplication used in formal and religious processions, the litany has been more recently adopted as a poetic form that catalogues a series. This form typically includes repetitious phrases or movements, sometimes mimicking call-and-response.
and this as an example:
Equestrian Monuments ...