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36

Samuel Fischer, who founded the S. Fischer Verlag in 1886 was also Jewish. After his death in 1934, his son-in-law Gottfried Bermann Fischer took over management of the publishing house, but in 1936 he left Germany with Samuel Fischer's widow. They first went to Vienna, taking part of the catalogue with them, and there continued publishing under the name &...


10

The term "white wizard" is used in the context of the white magic / black magic distinction. Black magic is malevolent, used for harmful or evil purposes; white magic is benevolent, used for good and selfless ones. The site Wicca Living explains: If people believed they were the victim of a curse, they would seek out a “white witch,” also known in ...


4

There are a couple of other occurrences in Hardy of “Turk” as an imprecation or mild oath. ‘Come to that, is it? Turk! won't thy mother be in a taking! Well, she's ready, I don't doubt?’ Thomas Hardy (1872). Under the Greenwood Tree; a Rural Painting of the Dutch School, volume II, p. 19. London: Tinsley Brothers. ‘Well, why shouldn't the man hang up her ...


2

I don't know about this specific book, but they could simply be actual place names. For instance: Cross Roads, Pennsylvania. And an 1861 NYT news article reports that "The skirmish took place about one mile in advance of the Cross Roads, just this side of the railroad", referring to a place properly known as "Ball's Cross Roads". ...


4

I assume it is indeed a historical reference. The year 1955 was double relevant to Borges: He had been an anti-Peronist [1], so he welcomed the Revolución Libertadora of 16 September 1955. In fact, the Wikipedia about Borges notes: According to [Borges biographer] Williamson, Borges shouted, "Viva la Patria", until his voice grew hoarse. [2] ...


3

Evidence that a certain event influenced a specific literary work that does not explicitly mention that event requires that two conditions are fulfilled: The event took place before the literary work was completed. Ideally, there is biographical information, such as letters or diary entries, that mention the influence of the event on the work in question. ...


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