The story you remember is "Once Upon a Time" by Nadine Gordimer. It's in collection "Jump and Other Stories" (where I read it). Most of the google returns for it are to Cliff's Notes type sites, so I can well believe you read it in a literature textbook!
There's a summary here. The part that matches your memory is:
The couple settles on ...
This is "Caught in the Act" by Christopher Stitt.
I did not know what to do. Here I was, on trial in an insect court, being defended by a Christmas beetle. It couldn't get any worse.
Back in 2010, the author was convicted for possession of child porn, and almost every news story about that was titled "Caught in the act".
This newer parody version appears to have an anonymous author.
I found the full poem here and here, so at least you can read it in full:
"You are old, Father William," the young man said,
"And your nose has a look of surprise;
Your eyes have turned round to the back of your head,
And you live upon cucumber pies."
"I know it, I know ...
The comic is L'uomo di carta (1981) / L'homme de papier / The Paper Man, written and drawn by Milo Manara. So it's not a French comic after all, but an Italian one that was translated into French.
La storia appartiene al genere western, e svolge in Arizona. A un arzillo vecchietto inglese, con l'ossessione della guerra e delle vecchie uniformi, viene ...
This gets easier when you strip out the honorific titles, Maulana, Pandit, Mirza, Maulvi and Hazrat.
Sharar, Sarshar, Ruswa and Hussain I think you have correctly identified.
'Mohamad Ali of Hardoi' may be 'Ahmad Ali', an Urdu writer known for his contributions to Ouhd Punch and a mentor to Sharar. I found this in the 'A Note on Abdul Halim Sharar' on page 4 ...
The book is likely the 1970 book A More Perfect Union: A Novel by Robert Stapp.
Unfortunately my evidence for this is an Amazon review comment in which Greg E states:
As an alternate history (AH) novel it fails to cross the plausibility threshold, as a piece of escapist literature that sums up the zeitgeist of the '70s... it's there. I read this an AH novel ...