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While doing some research for an answer, I discovered the Redwall series book Marlfox. At the end of the book, there is a meta-note:

Curtain!

This narrative has been edited by Florian Dugglewoof Wilffachop, Actor Manager Impresario. Who insists that the entire tale is a drama, which he will be later performing as a play, hence the three parts being named as acts rather than books. We crave your indulgence for this deviation.

So... did anything in the book actually occur? I'm inclined to believe that it did, and only small details were changed - otherwise why would this be a book released as part of the series? The "play" bit would then just be a framing device to tell a true story. However, not having access to the book (or many other Redwall novels) I can't tell for sure.

Is there any textual evidence, from other books (assuming that perhaps Marlfox can't be trusted), that the events in Marlfox occurred? Do any other Redwall books refer to events (preferably multiple events) that happened in Marlfox as fact?

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Yes, Marlfox is a solid part of the Redwall chronology.

In the (chronologically) next book, The Taggerung, one subplot of the story revolves around a few Abbey creatures deciphering messages left by the late Abbess Songbreeze, a.k.a. Song, one of the main protagonists of Marlfox. She was an old friend of Cregga (a recurring character through so many Redwall stories thanks to her great age) and daughter of Janglur Swifteye, just as in Marlfox:

The Badgermum knew. "The Abbess's real name was Songbreeze. Her sign was the S with breezes blowing through it. Can you see properly, Mhera? The light in here means nothing to me. Gundil, run and fetch a lantern, please. Hurry!"
Clearing the tray from the table, they placed both lantern and scroll upon it. Cregga felt the seal with her sensitive paws. It had stuck to both scroll and ribbon.
"What a pity to break this lovely thing. I would have liked to keep it, as a memento of my old friend Abbess Songbreeze."

I, Song, daughter of Janglur Swifteye and Mother Abbess of Redwall, do leave these thoughts of mine to be read by the creature who is chosen to rule the Abbey in my stead.

The note at the end of Marlfox seems to be a purely stylistic addition. Many of the Redwall books are told as "stories" in-universe with some framing device, such as The Bellmaker narrated by two old Abbeybeasts in the frame story who turn out to be young characters in the main story. In this one, the conceit is that Florian turned a (true) story into a play, which is in keeping with his character. It doesn't mean that he created the story as fiction.

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