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Terry Eagleton's book Literary Theory: An Introduction (second edition, 1996) offers the following explanation (emphasis added): The literary work continually enriches and transforms mere dictionary meaning, generating new significances by the clash and condensation of its various 'levels'. And since any two words whatsoever may be juxtaposed on the basis ...


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Peter Barry (Beginning Theory, fourth edition. Manchester University Press, 2017, p. 97): Psychoanalytic criticism is a form of literary criticism which uses some of the techniques of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature. Psychoanalysis investigates the connection between the conscious and the unconscious with the aim to cure mental disorders....


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How much weight you should give to an author's declaration about intended meaning or interpretation depends on the theory of literature you espouse. In a related question, I briefly discussed E. D. Hirsch's brand of intentionalism. However, most literary theories simply ignore authorial intent. In How to Read Literature (Yale University Press, 2014), Terry ...


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Antonin Scalia was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1986 and his first book on textualism, A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, dates from 1997. The idea that the interpretation of the Constitution should be based on "what reasonable persons living at the time of its adoption would have understood the ordinary meaning of the text to ...


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I managed to locate the book: it is Contexts for Criticism by Donald Keesey (second edition, Mayfield Publishing, 1994). It contains seven chapters, each with three examples of theory and three "applications" that illustrate the theory. Each chapter contains one "application" for Shakespeare's Hamlet, one for Keats's "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and one for Kate ...


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Bentley’s edition of Milton In 1732, Richard Bentley published an edition of Milton’s Paradise Lost. Bentley was master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and an eminent classical scholar, whose editions of the works of the Roman poets Horace and Terence had been well received. But his edition of Paradise Lost was a disaster, against which many pamphlets were ...


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It is correct to say that Lynn Hejinian says that there are multiple readings of an "open text". However, she does not say that all readings would be equally viable or valid. There are two passages in her essay that address this. First, she writes (emphasis added), though the “story” and “tone” of such works may be interpreted differently by ...


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The diagram from Machiavelli's comment is perhaps a bit misleading. It gives the impression that there are two main categories of paratext (each with further subdivisions), namely spatial and temporal, whereas spatial and temporal are two characteristics of paratext. When you look at paratext from a spatial point of view, you can subdivide it into peritext ...


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The question is a bit difficult to answer because of the constraints put on it. The Frankfurt School was hugely influential on cultural critique; Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, and Fredric Jameson, to name three towering figures, were all steeped in critical theory. But none of them is a member of the Frankfurt School per se. For one thing, they came of ...


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Harold Bloom certainly criticised New Historicism. In his book The Western Canon, he said: Whatever the convictions of our current New Historicists, for whom Shakespeare is only a signifier for the social energies of the English Renaissance, Shakespeare for hundreds of millions who are not white Europeans is a signifier for their own pathos, their own sense ...


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What is literature? You'd think this would be a central question for literary theory, but in fact it has not seemed to matter very much. These are the opening words of the second chapter, "What is Literature and Does it Matter?", in Jonathan Culler's Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 1997). I will skip Culler's ...


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The horizon of expection(s) (German: Erwartungshorizont) goes beyond a single reader's expectations. According to Hans Robert Jauss, the evaluation of a literary work requires a reconstruction of the "horizon of expectation(s)" that the author's contemporaries would have brought to that work. This "horizon of expectations" refers to the set of ...


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For Michel Foucault, discourse does not simply mean "verbal exchange"; in and through his work it has come to mean (quoted from Wiktionary), An institutionalized way of thinking, a social boundary defining what can be said about a specific topic (...) For example, in Madness and Civilization (Folie et déraison, 1961) he described how the Age of ...


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Since Tsundoku's answer has sufficiently explained "homology", I won't repeat what's already said. Here are a couple of other supplementary points about "homology": The idea was originally borrowed from biology. "Homology" in biology refers to similarity shared by organismal structures. A common ancestor is assumed in ...


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Goldmann explains "homology" (French: "homologie") in the Preface to Pour une sociologie du roman (Gallimard, 1964). Goldmann explains that the study of György Lukács's The Theory of the Novel (1914/15, 1920) and René Girard's Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque (1961; Deceit, Desire and the Novel) led him to formulate certain ...


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