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12

As someone who has struggled through an essay on characterization in Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber using Jungian archetypes I may be able to shed some light on the issue. The archetypal approach, in my experience, is quite controversial and has always been niche (I have never encountered in my studies a contemporary academic or critical work using ...


11

The Intentional Fallacy is the fallacy of defining the meaning of a work using the author's intentions: The author intended their work to mean this, and so it means this. However, this has problems: How does one know the author's intentions? What if the author failed in conveying their intentions? Quoting Wimsatt and Beardsley: If the poet succeeded ...


10

The intentional fallacy is a misnomer in that the fallacy is not committed intentionally, but rather it relates to intentions. The intentional fallacy is the fallacy of using authors' intentions in interpreting literary works as opposed to interpreting the texts itself. Yes, it is very much relevant today as has been shown on this site. Most people still do ...


8

First, I have to ask: do you have a clear definition for bias? Think on this for a moment. Let's look at some of the meanings given, for instance, by Merriam-Webster: a : an inclination of temperament or outlook; especially : a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment : prejudice b : an instance of such prejudice c : bent, tendency I believe ...


6

After some more searching, I found that the academic and author I was looking for is Frank Lentricchia. In literary theory and criticism he wrote, among other ones, the following books: After the New Criticism (University of Chicago Press, 1980), in which he reviews and evaluates the "critical theory" (not just literary theory, since he also discusses the ...


6

This is a tough question. Eliot, in particular, demonstrated the primacy of meter over rhyme in Four Quartets. (Rhyme is generally considered to be the primary mnemonic device, a critical element in that poems are traditionally meant to be recited, but that particular poem shows that meter alone serves the function quite well.) Rap, the most popular ...


6

The way that this question is worded implies a particular theory about how literature is interpreted (that is, it's a theory-laden question). The implicit theory seems to be that we interpret literature by treating it as if it were documentary evidence for a fictional universe. In this theory, there is a single fictional universe, and our task as readers is ...


5

"New Criticism" is an older form of literary criticism but it does focus on the "formal elements" of a piece. New Critics attempt to break down literature into four linguistic devices, paradox, irony, ambiguity, and tension. They also look closely at figurative language in how it presents images, symbols, metaphors, and similes. This is from the book, ...


4

Terry Eagleton's book Literary Theory: An Introduction (second edition, 1996) offers the following explanation (emphasis added): The literary work continually enriches and transforms mere dictionary meaning, generating new significances by the clash and condensation of its various 'levels'. And since any two words whatsoever may be juxtaposed on the basis ...


4

Peter Barry (Beginning Theory, fourth edition. Manchester University Press, 2017, p. 97): Psychoanalytic criticism is a form of literary criticism which uses some of the techniques of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature. Psychoanalysis investigates the connection between the conscious and the unconscious with the aim to cure mental disorders....


3

Antonin Scalia was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1986 and his first book on textualism, A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, dates from 1997. The idea that the interpretation of the Constitution should be based on "what reasonable persons living at the time of its adoption would have understood the ordinary meaning of the text to ...


3

I managed to locate the book: it is Contexts for Criticism by Donald Keesey (second edition, Mayfield Publishing, 1994). It contains seven chapters, each with three examples of theory and three "applications" that illustrate the theory. Each chapter contains one "application" for Shakespeare's Hamlet, one for Keats's "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and one for Kate ...


3

Wimsatt and Beardsley's essay The Intentional Fallacy wasn't flogging a dead horse, nor did it bury the concept of authorial intent. One of the most influential statements of intentionalism is E. D. Hirsch's book Validity in Interpretation (1967). In an essay entitled "Why Intentionalism Won’t Go Away", Denis Dutton describes Hirsch's stance as follows (my ...


3

Bentley’s edition of Milton In 1732, Richard Bentley published an edition of Milton’s Paradise Lost. Bentley was master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and an eminent classical scholar, whose editions of the works of the Roman poets Horace and Terence had been well received. But his edition of Paradise Lost was a disaster, against which many pamphlets were ...


3

The 5 word phrase you ask about, "English studies of empirical studies", is hard to parse when taken out of context, as you took it in the title of your question. The context "a larger suspicion in English studies of empirical studies as antihumanist" in which it occurs is clearer. It means, roughly, "a larger suspicion within English departments that ...


3

Analysis of literary texts that is based purely on the text itself and not historical context, the author's biography etcetera is not so much a "section" of literary theory but an approach practised by several schools of literary theory. This approach is known as formalism, which Wikipedia defines as a school of literary criticism and literary theory ...


3

All of the examples you give seem to be using the term "myopic" to mean focusing on something small, or very specific, while ignoring the larger view. Like most who mutilate Chopin, he was musically myopic, fawning over each note instead of seeking the longer shape of a phrase, its arc and context, where the real beauty lay. In this context, we're ...


2

How much weight you should give to an author's declaration about intended meaning or interpretation depends on the theory of literature you espouse. In a related question, I briefly discussed E. D. Hirsch's brand of intentionalism. However, most literary theories simply ignore authorial intent. In How to Read Literature (Yale University Press, 2014), Terry ...


2

I say they are both. The books do tell a story but with multiple endings based on the readers choices and the result of dice rolls. The choices you make tell the story and the battles that you have also are part of the narrative.


2

Is it common to reveal suspense or other important plot details in Epilogue section? It is not very common in my considerable reading experience but not unheard of. How important is Epilogue relating to the story? The epilogue is an integral part of the text of the literary work, unlike post-text sections like Author's note and Acknowledgements, and it ...


2

It is correct to say that Lynn Hejinian says that there are multiple readings of an "open text". However, she does not say that all readings would be equally viable or valid. There are two passages in her essay that address this. First, she writes (emphasis added), though the “story” and “tone” of such works may be interpreted differently by ...


2

I too have asked myself similar questions... Literary Theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. However, literary scholarship since the 19th century often includes—in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of intellectual history, ...


2

Cognitive psychology developed the concept of schema (plural: schemas or schemata) to describe "a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them". According to Kendray Cherry's article What Is a Schema in Psychology?, A schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret ...


2

A comparison presumes some similarities and some differences. It sounds like you want to use these similarities and differences to say something about how each author saw the war, probably also how they're the same and how they're different. From your brief outline, the similarities seem to stem from two facts: They're both fighting in the same war, and ...


2

In many cases, we can infer the author's intent from the way the work is presented. The author may present numerous scenes that show character A in an unflattering light, from which we deduce that she considers A to be a villain. Looking at the way a book was received in its time also gives us a good sense of how the author may have seen it. When modern ...


2

He may be making the case that hermeneutics is qualitatively different from medieval scholasticism. Scholasticism is mostly deductive, chasing out implications or inconsistencies in received texts, but with a known result in mind, to validate existing dogma, whether that of canon law or of Greek philosophy. Even Abelard at his most radical, in Sic et Non, ...


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