20

There have been a couple of different explanations given for this, but the upshot seems to be that there's nothing particularly significant about the masculinity of April - it was more a product of the way language was used at the time than any kind of symbolic statement about masculinity. In his Notes to the Canterbury Tales (2014), Prof Walter Skeat says ...


15

A "Cristopher" is a St. Christopher medal, to this day often cast in silver. According to reference.com's definition (there are hundreds of definitions online; this one was chosen due to its clarify of wording): The Saint Christopher medal is worn by members of the Catholic Church as an appeal to Saint Christopher, the patron saint of travelers. ...


9

Many renditions of the original English text use the word "shortly" instead of "soothly". For example, this version from Librarius: Now have I toold you shortly in a clause, Th'estaat, th'array, the nombre, and eek the cause Why that assembled was this compaignye In Southwerk, at this gentil hostelrye That highte the Tabard, faste ...


8

No. Such constructions were the norm in Old English and there's no reason to assume French influence was necessary for them to be available to Chaucer's Middle English versification. Middle English, the flavor of English used by Chaucer, has deep continuities with Old English, the version of the language that Beowulf is written in. Old English is a highly ...


7

No one knows, but it is likely a joke at the expense of the Prioress. There are, as you have observed, multiple ways of interpreting this text. It could be that Parisian French is radically different from the scholarly French taught at "the school of Stratford-atte-Bowe". It's not hard to imagine that the sanitised French taught in an English convent ...


5

The yellow bile or choler of this “sclendre colerik man” is at least partly expressed in suspicious wariness of others. In his position as Reeve (estate manager), this has served both “his lorde” and himself well, preventing them from being cheated: Ther nas baillif, ne hierde, nor oother hyne, That he ne knew his sleighte and ...


4

The description of the Pardoner's hair forms part of his overall depiction as effeminate. There are strong hints that he is homosexual or possibly even a eunuch. The poet suggests that he and the Summoner are lovers. Chaucer has already said of the Summoner: And hot he was and lecherous as a sparrow.       (l. 626) The Pardoner is then introduced as the ...


4

Short of finding a definitive statement from Hardy, it is impossible to be sure. But it is very likely that A Few Crusted Characters was influenced by The Canterbury Tales. I have three lines of evidence. First, we know that Hardy was familiar with The Canterbury Tales. Here's JoAnna Stephens Mink, in "Love, deception, and disguise in A Few Crusted ...


3

According to the following, it was not deliberate. Procol Harum's lyricist Keith Reid wrote the words to this song... The lyric, "As the miller told his tale" sounds like a reference to "The Miller's Tale," from Chaucer's English novel The Canterbury Tales... Reid, however, disproves this theory. He told us: "I'd never read The ...


3

The lyrics are on record as not being philosophically meaningful. However, I would presume that all would think like me, that indeed, "as the miller told his tale" was a direct reference to the Miller's Tale in The Canterbury Tales. But apparently I'd be wrong. The lyricist probably did it deliberately to make the song sound literary and highbrow. ...


2

I checked Nevil Coghill's translation, where the relevant lines are translated as follows Now I have told you shortly, in a clause, The rank, the array, the number and the cause (...) "In a clause" is not translated; the Norton Critical Edition and the Riverside Chaucer both gloss "in a clause" as "briefly". Preserving "in a clause" also preserves the ...


2

Although Vekzhivi's answer is not bad, I think I can add a few things. The spelling of "cristopher" varies between editions. For example, the Norton Critical Edition of the Canterbury Tales (edited by V. A. Kolve and G. Olson, 1989) has the following line: A Cristofre on his brest of silver shene. The editors add that "Cristofre" means &...


2

Like others, I have not been able to find the poem you are looking for, but I wonder if the source is actually the last few stanzas of Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde. The stanza that begins with “Go, litel book” is followed by a stanza in which Chaucer comments on his use of English and worries that the language, because it is so “diverse,” might be ...


2

This is possibly a reference to astrology. In western astrology, April is regarded as a masculine month. April is the month of Aries, The Ram, a masculine sign. It is ruled by Mars, a masculine planet. As astrology was more highly regarded in Chaucer's time than today, he could well be making a reference to April's astrological masculinity. However, ...


1

I don't think it's an outright joke. I'd certainly say it's mildly ironized, but a long introduction is still a 'clause' compared to a much longer body. The phrase is worthy of a 'heh' rather than a 'hahaha', you could say. The way I take the phrase "soothly in a clause" is as a prefatory assertion of truth value. The 'clause' or prologue itself is akin to, ...


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