As Spagirl commented, it is an epigraph.
As the great and powerful Oz Google puts it (borrowing from dictionary.com, which in turn borrows from Oxford dictionary), an epigraph is
a short quotation or saying at the beginning of a book or chapter, intended to suggest its theme
And as Wikipedia puts it
In literature, an epigraph is a phrase, quotation, ...
Graphic novel is a sub-category of comic books (which are, in turn, as subset of comics). For me (and hopefully for some other people out there), graphic novels represent a more coherent, complete, and mature subset of the comic book industry (and thus my comment on a relevant meta).
This website calls comic books "periodicals", but some graphic novels ...
(Thanks to @Standback for making edits)
It's to do with how much content there is.
A novelette is longer than a short story, but shorter than a novella. The word count is usually between 7,500 words to 17,500 words.
A novella is longer than a novelette and is sometimes called a long short story or a short novel
A novel is longer than a novella and is ...
The most related trope would probably be Crouching Moron, Hidden Badass, when a minor character with no apparent skills turns out to be a super-secret ninja-assasin in disguise.
A subtrope of this is Took a Level in Badass, which is seems to be pretty much what you're looking for. This is when a character pretty much suddenly develops a cool power, though ...
Byronic heroes were based off of Lord Byron's epic poem Child Harold's Pilgrimage.
According to Lord Macaulay in Rupert Christiansen's Romantic Affinities: Portraits From an Age, 1780- 1830, this is a description:
A man proud, moody, cynical, with defiance on his brow, and misery in his heart, a scorner of his kind, implacable in revenge, yet capable of ...
Symbolism was largely a European movement in the late 19th century, associated with such poets as Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Mallarmé, and Verlaine. They believed that artistic truth could not be depicted through naturalist or realist means. Instead, they sought to use images as symbols, i.e., as weighted with a meaning beyond the naturalistic. Jean Moréas, in the ...
The first known epigraph was used in Froissart's "Chroniques" about 1404 and «Calendarium» of Regimontan at 1476.
Э. стали применяться в лит-ре с нач. 15 в., впервые, насколько известно, в кн. «Хроники» («Chronique», написана к 1404, опубл. 1495) Ж. Фруассара, «Calendarium» Реджомонтано (Венеция, опубл. около 1476), «Максимы» (1665) Ф. де Ларошфуко («...
The "pp" refers to a page range, e.g. "pp. 3-6" means page three through page six.
I'm not entirely sure what citation style you're using, but this convention is used in the MLA citation style, as well as some other citation styles that I can't remember off the top of my head.
LiteratureSE user Aethelbald has suggested that:
pp stands for the Latin ...
It's complicated, but a Byronic hero tends to be rebellious, a loner, darkly romantic, and often an antihero.
Shmoop's literature glossary has a short description:
Cooked up by the "mad, bad, and dangerous to know" Lord Byron, a Byronic hero is an antihero of the highest order. He (or she) is typically rebellious, arrogant, anti-social or in exile, and ...
I believe "good bad poem" is a description specific to Orwell. The more common term for critically disdained poetry is doggerel. This can either mean a poem in verse that is structurally flawed (irregular rhythm, off rhymes, etc.), particularly when done deliberately and for comic effect, or conversely --and a closer match to what Orwell and Barr describe -...
TL;DR: Orwell’s ‘good bad’ poetry is ‘bad’ because it is superficial (lacking in aesthetic, intellectual, psychological or moral depth), but ‘good’ because it is skilfully written and enjoyable to read.
Orwell gave eight examples of ‘good bad’ poems, in addition to the works of Rudyard Kipling. I’ll give four lines from each, but follow ...
It does apply to comics, although comics really have no direct correlation to a film director.
The term is applied to any comic that is a reprint of any particular issue with added commentary by the writer or editor, script pages or production related artwork.
Quote from Comicvine:
"Director's Cut comics are special release issues with added content ...
Orwell's original essay is primarily about Rudyard Kipling, and I don't believe he ever worked out a full theory of "good bad poetry". He cites other examples:
There is a great deal of good bad poetry in English, all of it, I
should say, subsequent to 1790. Examples of good bad poems — I am
deliberately choosing diverse ones — are ‘The Bridge of Sighs’...
Let me start with this paragraph where Hubbard speaks of "imaginative fiction":
When you mix science fiction with fantasy you do not have a pure
genre. The two are, to a professional, separate genres. I notice today
there is a tendency to mingle them and then excuse the result by
calling it “imaginative fiction.” Actually they don’t mix well:
From the dictionary definition of a fable:
A short story, typically with animals as characters, conveying a moral
Oxford Dictionaries: "Fable"
Merriam Webster defines Fairy tale as:
a story (as for children) involving fantastic forces and beings (as fairies, wizards, and goblins)
a story in which improbable events lead to a happy ending
You might think of flash fiction as a very short story (it is sometimes also referred to as a short short story). Most magazines that specialize solely in flash fiction don't accept fiction that is above, say, 1000 words or 1500 words, maybe as much as 2000 words at most. Flash Fiction Magazine and Flash Fiction Online both have a maximum word count of 1000 ...
To quote Wikipedia:
Lovecraftian horror is a subgenre of horror fiction that emphasizes the cosmic horror of the unknown (and in some cases, unknowable) more than gore or other elements of shock, though these may still be present
The hallmark of Lovecraft's work is cosmicism: the sense that ordinary life is a thin shell over a reality that is so ...
In German, this type of phrase is known as a "Wendesatz". (Unfortunately, I couldn't find an online dictionary that explains the term, let alone a translation.) Below are a few examples. Some of them don't work well in translation.
"Ich liebe meine Frau liebt mich nicht mehr": I love my wife no longer loves me.
"Ich hasse egoisten kümmern sich nur um sich ...
My go-to source for authority on a matter like this is J.A. Cuddon's A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Here is the definition there for "novel of ideas":
A vague category of fiction in which conversation, intellectual
discussion and debate predominate, and in which plot, narrative,
emotional conflict and psychological depth in ...
In many cases a Movement is simply a label applied to a group of writers, who are producing works of a similar style or theme, by a reviewer. It will start as just a way of describing the similarity of work. The label then gets repeated and becomes a shorthand for that style or theme - and just catches the public imagination.
In some cases, a group of ...
Dr. L. Kip Wheeler's glossary of literary terms defines alliteration as
Repeating a consonant sound in close proximity to others, or beginning several words with the same vowel sound.
The glossary entry then goes on to provide several examples, from Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel:
In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin,
Before polygamy was made ...
I think what you are looking for is Literary Naturalism. This began as a reaction to the prevailing modes of surrealism and Romanticism of the period (late nineteenth-century) and was an off-shoot and more advanced form of realism. As such is it often called 'extreme' realism and is somewhat synonymous with the effects of realism; it depicts events and other ...
It is clear from web pages such as this one and this one that (unlike "sonnet" or "limerick" or "tanka") the term "grook" or "gruk" is not a widely used term for a recognizable verse form but rather a word invented by Piet Hein for the poems he wrote. It is possible someone other than Hein has written grooks, but the Internet does not seem to know about ...
A graphic novel is longer and is usually a single story; comic books are shorter and are often multiple stories.
a magazine with one or more comic strips.
a novel in the form of comic strips.
So, for instance, Bone is a graphic novel, and The Essential Calvin and Hobbes is a comic book.
You can see the ...
Reference has a pretty good explanation: (emphasis mine to highlight key traits)
The Byronic hero is characterized as being arrogant, violent, reckless, seductive, traumatized and self-serving. Developed by 19th-century poet Lord Byron, this type of character rejects social norms and exists as a form of antihero, or a protagonist lacking conventional ...
Biographies of animals are not a very common genre, although it is not difficult to find examples with a bit of digging:
Flush: A Biography (1933) by Virginia Woolf is the "imaginative biography" (Wikipedia's description) of a dog. Its entry in the Library of Congress) simply classifies is as "biographical fiction".
Bobbie, a Great Collie by Charles ...
In literary criticism, close reading is the careful, sustained
interpretation of a brief passage of a text. A close reading
emphasizes the single and the particular over the general, effected by
close attention to individual words, the syntax, and the order in
which the sentences unfold ideas, as the reader scans the line of
This is meant as a supplement to @akr's concise answer.
"Ode" derives from two Ancient Greek word for song: ἀοιδή and ᾠδή
You will note from the links that one of the entries for the first word is:
1.song, a singing, whether the art of song, Hom.; or the act of singing, song
2.the thing sung, a song, Hom., etc.
3.the subject of song, Od.