The consensus of scholars is that Poe assembled Arthur Gordon Pym in a series of stages under financial and deadline pressure, that his conception of the novel changed at each stage, and that the published text represents an unfinished and unpolished draft that Poe lacked the time or inclination to revise into a coherent whole.
Neither the chronicle of the ...
The passage appears to use the rhetorical device of aporia: the narrator asks a question expressing a certain doubt ("But can one really call it a life?") and then proceeds to give two possible answers. However, neither of these answers really resolves the question; instead, they read like an elaboration of the doubt expressed by the question.
In his letters, J.R.R. Tolkien says that Williams was an influence on it. (He lamented it; he thought the influence had ruined it.)
Williams' influence actually only appeared with his death: That
Hideous Strength, the end of the trilogy, which (good though it is in
itself) I think spoiled it.
-- Tolkien's Letters, Letter 257
I think the first translation you mention is more accurate. Still, omitting comma in first line and adding in last would be more accurate, and here is why:
In original it's
Ja tarsjusz syn tarsjusza,
wnuk tarsjusza i prawnuk,
wiem, jak bardzo trzeba być tarsjuszem.
In the first row it's not "Ja jestem tarsjusz", or "Ja ...
Your examples aren't representative of how I've seen dash style used (mostly in books in Spanish, but James Joyce also used it, perhaps because of his exposure to it while living in France).
When there's something more than a dialogue tag, it's typical for there to be a additional dashes to introduce the additional dialogue, e.g.,
— No! — said Gandalf, ...
The most striking characteristic that Camus's The Fall / La Chute and Daoud's Meursault, contre-enquête have in common is that they are written as a second-person narrative.
In La Chute, the main character tells his story to another person whom he addresses as "vous" ("you", polite form); neither the main character nor the other person formally introduce ...