It is Hebrew. Hebrew letters have Hebrew names, written in Hebrew. Our transliteration into Latin alphabet is a convention and those can change, different authors may use different conventions for different reasons. The same word can be spelt differently in academic paper, high school textbook or online forum.
I don't think so. Romanis have been very present for centuries in Andalusia (where Lorca came from) and so he noted:
El libro en conjunto, aunque se llama gitano, es el poema de Andalucía, y lo llamo gitano porque el gitano es lo más elemental, lo más profundo de mi país, lo más representativo de su modo y el que guarda la sangre y el alfabeto de la ...
Well Neruda was Chilean and Chile is in the southern hemisphere. Therefore January is the hottest month by far and when the sun shines more cruelly.
I am not Chilean but I am from the same latitude in Argentina. As January is the hottest month it is usually the month with the brightest light also.
Interesting question, I wondered myself. All I could find was a small hint in "Julian's book", the last chapter in "The Labyrinth of the light" (1:1 translation from my German copy, the original was published in 2016 as "El laberinto de los espíritus".
There's a name mentioned as ghostwriter of Julian Carax: Boris Laurent. This could be some inside joke or ...