12

The word "propaganda" at that time was not understood the way we tend to understand it today. It is more or less safe to understand it based on its etymology, i.e. based on the verb "propagate" - propaganda: "A concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of large numbers of people." - just remove the ...


9

Where the translator (Constance Garnett) used “secret police”, the Russian text is “Третьего отделения” (tretyego otdeleniya) meaning “third section”, that is, the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty’s Own Chancellery, the secret police department of the Imperial Russian government from 1826 to 1880. Its headquarters were near the Panteleymonovsky Bridge ...


8

Колокол (Kolokol meaning “bell”) was a mid-19th century dissident Russian-language newspaper, printed in London and Geneva to evade Russian state censorship. Commenting on the lines of verse quoted by Kolya: Long will you remember The house at the Chain bridge Victor Terras writes: These two lines are from a widely known antigovernment satire, repeatedly ...


8

What exactly is he referring to? He's most probably referring to the events in Russian history when Russia was on a brink of ceasing to exist as a state. There were a number of grave moments throughout the centuries, to name a few: Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus (XIII-XV centuries) Смутное Время ("Time of Troubles", as Wiki puts it) (late XVI - ...


7

Dostoyevsky's neighbor was Alexander Barannikov, a revolutionary and terrorist, who participated in the murder of the Russian chief of police and Moscow bombings. The story was first discovered by Viktor Shklovsky, our great literary scholar, who included official letter about the search in his novellette published in 1933. Later this story was further ...


6

I assumed it might be a biblical reference, but upon checking, it doesn't seem that Rebecca was a slave. It is her, Rebecca. According to these comments to "Anna Karenina" (in Russian, search for 'genre' on that page to hit the comment about Ребекка): Стр. 130. ...в восточном строгом стиле, «genre рабыни Ребекки...» — Имеется в виду библейский тип ...


6

There is a translation here, in the book Mandelstam, Blok, and the boundaries of mythopoetic symbolism by Stuart Goldberg, that looks okay to me (although I can't say for sure, since I don't read Russian). It starts: I will not see the celebrated Phèdre In a venerable, many-tiered theater, From the high, soot-smoked gallery, By the light of guttering ...


6

There are some examples. Early Pushkin was heavily influenced by Andre Chénier and tried to master his style through translation (here and elsewhere computer translation with my editing): The first translation from Chénier was made by Pushkin in 1823. This is a translation of the first twenty-five verses of Chénier's idyll "L'aveugle", and ...


4

First the definition would be good. Sadly, there are quite a few but I think that only one is important: Relating to the philosophy or theories of aesthetics. Of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste: aesthetic judgment; the aesthetic appeal of the exhibit. Attractive or appealing: the more aesthetic features of the building. Characterized ...


3

It was Tatyana's nanya, who said that she was forced to marry at 13 and her husband was even younger. Nanya was a serf. Vladimir, Tatiana, and Olga grew up playing together, and Lenskiy constantly refers to that happy time in his life. All three have to be about the same age. There is little difference in age between Tatyana and Olga, so all three are ...


3

I'll give it a go. I'll start with providing an extended quote from Levin's dialogue with Oblonsky: 'Aristocratism, you say. But allow me to ask, what makes up this aristocratism of Vronsky or whoever else it may be - such aristocratism that I can be scorned? You consider Vronsky an aristocrat, but I don't. A man whose father crept out of nothing ...


3

The translator chose to "translate" the Russian measure of weight of that time into something that would make sense to English natives. In the original text Dostoevsky uses the phrase семипудовая купчиха, where пуд is approx. 16 kilos, while семь means "seven". The narrator ("devil" from Ivan's nightmare) alludes to a ...


3

This must refer to Kolokol, which means "Bell" or "The Bell" (Russian doesn't have a word for "the") in Russian. It was a weekly Russian-language 19th-century newspaper with significant revolutionary and socialist leanings, which was banned in Russia at the time. From the Wikipedia article: At Kolokol's base was a theory of ...


3

My source for this answer is "A Karamazov Companion" by Vitor Terras (1981), University of Wisconsin Press. Terras writes: The Brothers Karamazov contains more autobiographic ele­ments than most of Dostoevsky’s works (...) Let's go through some of the characters. Aliosha It seems that Aliosha was based on people from real life. Aliosha Karamazov’...


2

This short story is a hilarious caricature on the--oh so typical--characters. Both of them are pathetically "ignoble1, repulsive, and senseless", and being such, they of course blame the world on it. Exposing these traits is the centrepoint of much of Chekhov's output. So this "another old general" is the punch line, so to speak. Like ...


2

Drowning is out of question, for a few reasons. First, the word translated as water-barrel in Russian original is кадушка; a vessel holding perhaps four or five gallons at most. It physically impossible to drown in it. Second, the entire story is in past tense, except that Groholsky is staying with Bugrov to this day is in present. This surely means that ...


2

I don't think there is a special reason. Just the language convenience. Ideally, there would be no names at all. Like a traditional scary story, it would be abstract. "Once upon a time there was a little girl..." etc. However, with more than 2-3 related characters it quickly becomes messy. There is a three-generation family in the story, plus a young man. ...


2

I seriously doubt that claim. Russian wiki does not have it as well. According to its account, the haemorrhage was caused by an emotional conversation with his sister regarding an inheritance. The conversation happened at January 26th. As far as I can tell (given my limited knowledge of the languages you've linked), neither article mentioned this ...


2

After the first mention of Claude Bernard, Mitya uses him as a sort of personalised synecdoche for the worldview that he feels such scientists represent, the conquest of religion by science. The word "Bernard" appears 13 times in the text of The Brothers Karamazov. Most of them are already quoted in your question, and the others shed no further ...


2

Because Levin appears first. Levin/Lyovin is the main character of the novel: it is not just about Anna and Vronsky! See LitCharts, for example: Levin, the other main protagonist of the novel (besides Anna)… Screenwriting guru Michael Hauge in his article on romcom structure pointed out (it seems it’s not on the web anymore, Russian translation is here): ...


1

The obvious reason why War and Peace is usually described as a novel and not as an epic is that verse is one of the defining characteristics of the epic. Applying the descriptor "epic" to novels is a relatively recent phenomenon in the history of literature. Since the question cites Britannica in support of the claim that War and Peace is an epic, ...


1

This is quintessential Tolstoy the man, Tolstoy the philosopher. The point is not to judge or second-guess God's actions. He has His own ways, and we can only be sure that He knows everything. The argument is the same as one of those put forth today against death penalty: wrongful convictions do happen, even in the face of 'hard evidence', and when (if!) ...


1

If I recall correctly, Erik Simon wrote in the afterword of his german translation that the novel was deemed too political, especially the criticism of nationalism and mass media. The publishing house of the Komsomol was one of the few venues that would touch SF, the Strugatskies decided to write a story about a Komsomol in space. It's possible the censors ...


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