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Reading comes first Shakespeare’s plays are written to be spoken by actors on stage, to convey meaning, nuance, and emotion to an audience. This dramatic purpose comes first, before considerations of metre. So the way to scan Shakespeare’s verse drama is to start by reading it aloud, and figuring out where the stress needs to go to best convey the sense, ...


3

Clarifying the question If I understand it right, the question is asking how to reconcile Bolingbroke’s pledge of loyalty if his lands are restored (III.3): Henry Bolingbroke On both his knees doth kiss King Richard’s hand, And sends allegiance and true faith of heart To his most royal person; hither come Even at his feet to lay my arms and power, Provided ...


3

In Shakespeare's time, "compass" could have meanings that have since become obsolete, for example, "circle, circumference" (see Peter Ure's edition) and "bounds, limits, range" (see Onions and Richard III, Act III, scene 4: "Why should we in the compass of a pale (...)"). In addition, "crown" could also mean &...


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