13

Native speaker here. The most important part that was lost in translation was the rhythm of the prose. Lem's texts at all times have a quality similar to that of a blank verse. Sadly, I think it would require much better writer than Lem to save the meaning and give a similar quality to English translation. Also a number of passage's literal details got lost....


12

Brenci Patiño makes the point that the two women, Modesta and the indigenous woman, are "pitted against each other" by the social structure around them. They "share similar experiences of oppression," but must fight each other for survival. Modesta, as a servant to a wealthy family, was abused and made to live in fear. So the specific ...


8

At the time, there were many Jewish bankers/moneylenders, so moneylenders were probably often portrayed as Jews. For a very long time, the Jews have been associated with banking and money. There are a few reasons, such as that there were a lot of Jewish bankers after the 11th century. In The Encyclopedia Judaica, in their article on Banking and Bankers, in ...


8

Whitewashing is distinct but related things. Changing an existing non-white character to be a white one. Using white characters in a setting that would typically have non-whites. White actors, directors, writers, singers (i.e. content creators) receiving the majority of awards and accolades. The fact that it is white people being accused off this action ...


7

As a concise and direct answer to your question, here is a quote from Twain's essay "Concerning the Jews": "I have no race prejudices, and I think I have no color prejudices or caste prejudices nor creed prejudices. Indeed I know it. I can stand any society. All that I care to know is that a man is a human being--that is enough for me; he can'...


7

This is a strange question for a number of reasons. First of all, it's quite broad and meandering. There's a lot of assumptions in the question that aren't correct and need to be corrected. I mention this as way of explaining and apologizing for the meandering style of this answer. The central character is a reimagining of Shakespeare's Caliban, a Caribbean ...


6

Sorry to be brief, I'm writing this on a phone (more to follow later). Short answer: for a long time, usury rules generally forbade Catholics from lending money at interest to other Catholics. Similarly, Jews generally couldn't charge interest to Jews, but they could lend money to Christians at interest. (Both were basing the prohibition on a number of ...


5

It's set in Louisiana because the town is based on a real town as she mentions in an NPR interview: I got the idea for the book from a conversation I had with my mother, who told me very offhandedly one day about a town she remembered from her Louisiana childhood, where everyone sort of intermarried so that their children would get lighter with each ...


4

Here's the original Polish text of this passage (plus half a sentence as the sentence breaks are different in the translation). I highlighted the sentence that was translated as “A giant Negress was coming silently towards me with a smooth, rolling gait.” Zbliżyłem się do okrągłej komory, z której rozchodziły się korytarze na kształt szprych koła, kiedy ...


4

I love Anthony Trollope for his characters but, sadly, he often characterizes Jews in late 19 century London as prosperous but dangerous moneylenders to the elite ("The Eustace Diamonds" and "The Duke's Children"). Some of his least sympathetic characters, who are probably Jewish, although it is not totally clear to the reader, are psychopaths: Ferdinand ...


3

In this case, whitewashing is basically exactly what it sounds like. It's taking a canonically PoC (Person of Colour) character and portraying them as white instead, either through art or film or fanfic or what have you. Basically, taking away any reference to their race and making them look/act like a white person, even though the canonical media states/...


2

"You are black? [...] In my country everyone had white skin, so we had to use the shades. My hair were dark so I've been called black" The paraphrased quote above is from "American Gods", but I believe it brings the essence of what people trying to say: in Polish, calling someone "black" might mean something different than in ...


2

It's referring to the 1920s. Note the reference to the book's publication as "one of the last of all through the thirties", "one year before our entry into the last world war". The prevailing view towards the African-American in the '20s was one of patronising comfortable superiority, but Baldwin is arguing that the Great Depression changed all this, and the ...


1

Heathcliff's precise ethnicity is still open to debate. In the mid-nineteenth century, the term "gypsy" could refer to a Romani individual, or it could more be used to describe someone who appears "non-English". Perhaps he is either Eastern or Southern European, or part-Indian.


1

In another part of that same book (I cannot find the page number in Google books), the author says this speech was at Portland University. "Toni Morrison, one of the foremost storytellers of my lifetime, captured the futility of 'celebrating' black history, with a powerful speech in 1975. 'It's important to know ... the very serious function of racism, ...


1

My answer about the pronouns in "Shift" focused on the opposition between nature (and a person's nature and roots) on the one hand, and technology-based civilisation on the other. My interpretation of the use of pronouns is based on the claim that Caliban tried to get away from his original environment and ignored his nature and roots. The story contains ...


1

Literature, at least in one important sense, is holding up a mirror to human nature. And Stanislaw Lem in Solaris is holding up literally a mirror to European society, just as another Polish writer, Joseph Conrad - a writer Lem both admired and was influenced by - did in Heart of Darkness . But whereas Conrad was tackling European imperialism, Lem was ...


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