17

This is an error introduced by the translator. The original Portuguese text says: Sabei que estais na Índia, onde se estende Diverso povo, rico e prosperado De ouro luzente e fina pedraria, Cheiro suave, ardente especiaria. A literal translation (mine) would be: Know that you are in India, where dwell diverse people, rich and prosperous from bright gold ...


6

São Lourenço, i.e., Saint Laurence or Lawrence, was the name given to Madagascar by the Portuguese. According to Wikipedia: European contact began on August 10, 1500, when the Portuguese sea captain Diogo Dias sighted the island after his ship separated from a fleet going to India. The Portuguese traded with the islanders and named the island São Lourenço (...


3

Nysa was a mythological region where Dionysus was said to have been raised. While it migrated a lot, a city in India -- probably Nagara -- told Alexander that it had been founded by Dionysus, and he renamed it Nysa. (I note that Alexander the Great not only conquered portions of India, he caused enough Greek settlement and influence to produce Yavanarajya, ...


3

Camões invokes the nymphs of the Tagus to be his muse. An invocation where the poet asks the muse to inspire his song is a standard component of epic poetry. Here are examples from the classics: Homer, Odyssey: ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰ πλάγχθη, ἐπεὶ Τροίης ἱερὸν πτολίεθρον ἔπερσεν:     (I.1–2) Translation by Emily Wilson: Tell me ...


3

tl;dr Faria e Sousa was interrogated about the presence of pagan gods in the Lusíads. Camões and the Pagan Gods Following the footsteps of predecessors such as Homer and Virgil, Camões had chosen to include gods among the characters of his epic. The chief deities in the Lusíads are Jupiter, Venus, and Bacchus, but Tethys, Neptune, etc. also make appearances. ...


2

Camões chief source for the details of Vasco da Gama's voyage was a diary kept by one of his crew members. The diary is anonymous, but is attributed to either Álvaro Velho or, according to recent scholarship, João de Sá. The record of the voyage is nearly complete, as it covers the entire outward journey and the return as far back as Guinea (the current ...


2

The Roman god Bacchus and his Greek counterpart Dionysos have long been associated with Nysa. The names Dionysos and Nysa are said to be etymologically related, though the exact connection is unclear. Bacchus / Dionysos was the son of Jupiter and Semele. The pregnant Semele unwisely asked to see Jupiter in his flaming form, the sight causing her to burn to ...


1

This site (page is google-translated) has a sale of the book and says it was approved for use in schools. Later on the page it says* Volume of short stories from 1886, selected and translated by the couple Maria Amália Vaz de Carvalho and Gonçalves Crespo, dedicated to "the mothers" and destined to the children: "stories to delight the ...


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