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The counterpart to the term "orientalism" is, rather unsurprisingly, occidentalism, which Wikipedia defines as follows: Occidentalism refers to and identifies representations of the Western world (the Occident) in two ways: (i) as dehumanizing stereotypes of the Western world, (broadly defined as consisting of Europe, Northern America, Australia ...


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The earliest reference I am aware of is Shakespeare's Macbeth, written in or around 1606. Near the end of Act 3, scene 4, we find the following dialogue (emphasis mine), MACBETH: How say'st thou, that Macduff denies his person At our great bidding? LADY MACBETH: Did you send to him, sir? MACBETH: I hear it by the way; but I will send: There's not a one of ...


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In The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905) Revolutionary France is described as a "tyranny" and agents of the committee of Public Safety are shown as having near dictatorial powers. Napoleonic France is shown as dictatorial and tyrannical in C. S. Forrester's "Hornblower" series, particularly in Flying Colors (1938). In neither case is the term &...


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