15

The author says using "he" was a deliberate stylistic choice. In an interview with the New Yorker, she explained that she consistently called him "he" because that fit better with the way the book is written than using his name would. She said this made the text more "intimate". See the following quote (emphasis mine): And can ...


12

No, the mere presence of multiple narrators does not make a novel metafictional. Nor do metafictional novels necessarily confine themselves to just a single narrator. While metafiction depends on the manipulation of narrative point of view, the number of narrators has no bearing on whether or not a given work is metafictional. Patricia Waugh defines ...


11

Winston is the only character whose point of view we have access to in the novel, a necessary precursor for the potential of an unreliable narrator. After all, without an external perspective, we can never be sure what he's not telling us, nor whether the context in which he presents the information is accurate. Take, for example, the way he blames himself ...


11

It is a good idea, when discussing “unreliable” narrators, to be explicit about what exactly is supposed to be unreliable about the narrative. A narrative can be unreliable at different levels. At one extreme the narrator may lie outright (Baron Munchausen); at the other the narrator may be accurate but mistaken in interpretation or judgement (The Remains of ...


8

A good place to start is Monika Fludernik’s annotated bibliography of second-person fiction (up to 1994): The bibliography has four different sections: A. a list of those second-person texts that meet my requirements. […] The second-person pronoun refers to a fictional protagonist; B. a list of texts noted in the literature as being second-person texts but ...


6

James Whitcomb Riley was perhaps the most well-known American humorist who wrote primarily in dialect. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn is probably the best-known American book written in dialect, but it's only semi-humorous. Zora Neale Hurston's transcendent Their Eyes Were Watching God has all the dialog in dialect, but it's neither for humor nor for cruelty....


6

When a story is told from a single character's point of view, this type of narrative is known as third-person-limited narration (see Terms Used by Narratology and Film Theory by Dino Franco Felluga, Pudue University). This type of narration can be contrasted with other third-person narratives, such as the omniscient third-person narration and the objective ...


5

The oldest example of second-person narration I could find is The Haunted Mind by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It was first published in 1835 and later included in volume 2 of Twice-Told Tales (1842). Unfortunately, this is a short story. The oldest example of novel using second-person narration may be Le Serviteur, an autobiographical novel by Henri Bachelin, first ...


5

Examining them independently first of all: The first-person narrative Is defined by the use of personal pronouns, 'I' and 'my' it creates the effect of seeing and experiencing the events of a text through the character's or narrator's eyes, like in your example with I see. Furthermore, it evokes a distinctly personal angle from the text. Is a subjective ...


4

The boundaries of expectation set by a story's narration fall under the general heading of point of view. In itself, point of view is a simple concept: what is the relationship of the narrator to the narrative? Or more simply still, who's telling the story, and when? This simplicity itself reveals the foundational nature of point of view to the unfolding of ...


4

But I am wondering what the earliest book is in English that uses bad spelling for humor value. I realise I'm somewhat stretching the scope of your question, but if you include plays as "books", and in the context of spoken dialogue you interpret "bad spelling" to include the author putting the wrong word in a character's mouth for the ...


4

tl;dr Stream of consciousness, partly; interior monologue, no. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is narrated largely through indirect discourse limited to Stephen Dedalus's point of view. Inasmuch as the narrative technique is third person, the novel does not use interior monologue, which by definition uses first person. However, as the question ...


4

The use of multiple perspectives has been a feature of the English novel from its earliest days. Samuel Richardson's Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740), often considered the first novel in English, itself uses multiple narrators. The first part of the story is told mostly in a series of letters from Pamela to her parents. However, four of those 32 letters are ...


4

PAIRS is intended to help you direct your attention to specific methods a text may use to reveal what a character is like. Essentially, it tells you not to overlook (1) what a character looks like, (2) how they behave, (3) what they think, (4) how they react to the statements or actions by other characters and (5) what they say. It gives students a kind of ...


3

There are two things I think the choice of first-person adds to the poem: novelty, and a sense of movement. The novelty factor comes from the point of view being, well, novel. Bodies of water can't talk, and they aren't usual narrators, so a reader will likely find a poem written from a brook's perspective novel and interesting. For example: I chatter, ...


3

Wodehouse wrote in a letter to William Townend dated 6 March 1932, (...) It's not all jam writing in the first person. The reader can know nothing except what Bertie tells him, and Bertie can know only a limited amount himself. This letter is quoted in P.G. Wodehouse in His Own Words, edited by Barry Day (Abrams, 2012). One of Wodehouse's early novels was ...


2

It depends on whom you ask. Some will tell you that the widest POV is the controlling factor, because narrowing it down is only an exception. In that case, Bleak House is omniscient (or third-person) POV. Some will tell you it's alternating or multiple POV. There isn't an official name for this classification, since there are so many possible variations. ...


2

A memoir does not need to have a consistent reliable narrator. First off, what is a memoir, and how does it differ from a historical novel and how does it differ from a textbook? Dictionary.com defines the word thusly: a record of events written by a person having intimate knowledge of them and based on personal observation. Usually memoirs. a. ...


2

It's called many things, but the most common terms seem to be multiperspectivity (what Wikipedia uses), alternate point of view, multiple narrative, and switching point of view. Multiperspectivity, however, seems to be a bit of a broader term - it refers to more than just literature. It does seem to be a fairly common style (at least now) - I know Rick ...


2

The technique where an author gives us direct access to what a character is thinking is called interior monologue. The passage you quote above tells us what the governess is saying in her own mind: "I wish it wasn't night time. I wish there was another woman in the carriage. I'm frightened of the men next door." Notice that this is set off from ...


2

A narrative that begins at the end and moves to the beginning of the events it describes would exhibit reverse chronology (see also Joe Bunting, Chazda Hill and LiteraryTerms.net). However, what we have in Lord Jim is not reverse chronology but a nonlinear narrative. This type of narrative became more common in modernist literature. As Terry Eagleton wrote ...


1

A story which begins at the end and then skips to the beginning is a nonlinear narrative. Sometimes, the act of jumping back to a previous point in the story is called a flashback. If the story presents a key story as a sub-level of the narrative world - perhaps backstory - that has been called a “frame narrative”. For example, in Forrest Gump, the lead ...


1

The point of view in ‘A Worn Path’ can be described as “third-person, limited, objective”. That is, it is told from the point of view of a “third person”, a narrator who not themselves a character in the story; it is “limited” (as opposed to “omniscient”), describing only things seen and experienced by the protagonist; and it is “objective” (as opposed to “...


1

I think you might be looking for the term "free indirect speech" in which the narration directly includes character thoughts and perspectives. Because the narrator is directly reporting the characters' thoughts like this, when the focus is on different characters, the narration tone and style can change as well. Some good examples of free indirect speech ...


1

The perspective you are talking about is generally applied to narration, not oratory or addresses. That said, this seems like it would be "2nd person".


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