38

The public saw the plays were fiction, perhaps even a warning against witchcraft, and the magic in them is divorced of religious overtones. It is noteworthy that the two Shakespeare plays which deal most overtly with magic, Macbeth and The Tempest were both written during the reign of King James I. James was an enthusiastic believer in the dangers of ...


25

Some geographical context might be helpful. The scene of the crime is the North Kent Marshes: “A shocking tragedy has come to light in a meadow about a mile from Dartford. About two o’clock this morning, a rural constable observed a rick on fire out on the marshes near the creek.” R. Austin Freeman (1924). ‘The Funeral Pyre’. In The Blue Scarab, pp. 238–239....


14

By “the red ant heaps of Toulon”, Hugo means the Bagne de Toulon, a notorious prison where the convicts wore red jackets and red caps. This is the prison where Jean Valjean serves nineteen years for stealing a loaf of bread, in Hugo’s Les Misérables. L’habillement du forçat qui est différent pour chaque bagne, se compose à Toulon, dit l’auteur, d’une ...


12

TLDR: 1 - Marlow was not an atheist in the modern sense. 2- Dr Faustus is not as clearly religious as it first appears Let's start by pointing out that "atheism" doesn't necessarily stop an author from writing about theism. Umberto Eco, for example, is a professed atheist yet is the author of The Name of the Rose, a novel set in a medieval ...


6

The plot hinges on the dream state induced in Norma by drugs administered by Robert Orwell, posing as her father, and his wife. I believe that Christie introduces the notion of there being lots of 'new' drugs around, possibly as an authorial defense against people picking holes in the storyline if some real named drug such as LSD or Purple hearts wouldn't ...


5

I just figured out the answer to my own question. By the "Red ant heaps of Toulon", Hugo most likely means the Bagne of Toulon, the prison that is also prominently featured in "Les Misérables" as the place in which the protagonist Jean Valjean is imprisoned for many years. It was, by modern definition, more of a forced labor camp than a ...


4

Let us first look at the occurrences of words such as [gun]powder and pistol in the play as a whole. Falstaff says (Act V, scene 3), I am as hot as molten lead, and as heavy too. God keep lead out of me, I need no more weight than my own bowels. I have led my ragamuffins where they are peppered. The scene is set during the Battle of Shrewsbury and ...


4

Yes. It would be back page news but it was crucial to businesses to know such information. Here are some samples.


4

If you are asking about the historical reasons, then asking in History.SE might be better. From the literature point of view the answer lies in text: This class of women is consigned by our laws entirely to the discretion of the police. The latter do what they please, punish them, as seems good to them, and confiscate at their will those two sorry things ...


4

I believe Anouilh hints at this in the preface to the play: Je n'ai pas été chercher dans les livres qui était vraiment Henri II - ni même Becket. J'ai fait le roi dont j'avais besoin et le Becket ambigu dont j'avais besoin. My translation: I haven't gone reading books about who Henry II really was - nor even Becket, for that matter. I have created the ...


3

I don't know if it was common, but I suspect that it has happened. Let me point to my favourite occurence. The Vajdahunyad Castle in the Budapest City Park is a modern castle built shortly before 1896, imitating the style of mediaeval castles of Hunyadi. It was first built as a hasty wooden structure so that it may be ready for the Millenium celebrations ...


3

The context of the song being sung is that the conscripts have been invited to a Christmas party with the officers, and folk music is brought up with the implication that the Officers, as educated people, are familiar with their country's history and folk music, while the conscripts would only be familiar with popular contemporary music. The conscripts sing ...


3

While the other answers already point out both the technical basis for Roark's claims as well as a general cultural precedent for disregarding the blind following of tradition for tradition's sake in favour of doing what's "right", there is an even more direct historical basis for Roark's broader sentiments against blindly replicating the replicas of Greek ...


3

Intraschool Communications along with various memos + missives from management seem to be placed into pigeon-holes (referred to as "boxes" or "letter-boxes") to be collected between periods. This accounts for the large number of messages since most high schools in the 1960s would operate a 6-10 period-per-day system. INTRASCHOOL COMMUNICATION FROM: 304 ...


2

I think you're barking up the wrong tree by looking for murders involving a barrel. In the passage you quote, the context is about the notion of clergymen being immoral, "naughty" as she puts it. The reference then would be to Harold Davidson, also known as the "Rector of Stiffkey" or the "Prostitutes' Padre". He was a rector who was prosecuted in court for ...


2

I am interested in turning points in social history and what the literature says about recognizing that we are passing through one and change is needed. The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century was a dramatic time of social change and it did indeed lead to a group of novels called the "social problem novels," including the "industrial novels" of the ...


2

"Legion of Honor": initially a very high honor created by Napoleon Bonaparte, but can be gifted to civilians and as such tends to designate an old, respectable Frenchman who has done service to his country. Source "General Council": now called the Departmental council, this is the department-level government. Essentially, what this says ...


2

The book Traité des impôts en France: considérés sous le rapport du droit, de l'économie politique et de l'économie politique by Edouard Vignes (3rd edition, 1872) discusses the tax system in France in the second half of the 19th century. 1872 is admittedly a bit later than the year in which the novel is set, but apparently the tax system did not change much ...


2

The mixed commissions were kangaroo courts set up by the régime of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte after the coup of 1851 to punish suspected Republican sympathisers. The name “mixed” refers to their being composed of both civilian and military judges. La manque d’armes et de munitions, joint à la terreur imprimée dans la masse par les exéctions sommaires, obligea ...


1

Peter has a rather unusual view on certain historical events and entities. Based on the context in the story, Peter appears to be referring to countries and states as "social organizations". In a way, they are, but the term "social organisation" is more commonly used to refer to organisations within a society. "Organized bodies"...


1

"Whiskey in the Jar" (see Wikipedia and LiveAbout) is a traditional Irish folk song about a man who robs an army officer and then is betrayed by his lover. Originally an oral tradition with many variations, it has been recorded by various bands and singers in the 20th century. The origin of this song would have been during the time of British rule ...


1

He mentioned it in La Vie Errante (The Wandering Life), published 1890. I found a quote in this blog post, both in French and in Amanda Crawley Jackson's English translation: J’ai quitté Paris et même la France, parce que la tour Eiffel finissait par m’ennuyer trop. Non seulement on la voyait de partout, mais on la trouvait partout, faite de toutes les ...


1

Boucicault’s letter says: The next part of the séance was performed in the dark and it is clear from the way the letter is phrased that during this performance the spectators were unable to see the performers. For example, near the end, Boucicault writes: Mr. Fay was seen meanwhile bound hand and foot as before whereas, if he had been able to watch Mr. ...


1

The story is set during the winter of 1870-1871, several months after the fall of Napoléon III's Second Empire (early September 1870) but before the preliminary peace treaty signed in Versailles on 26 February 1871. Since the Prussian forces entered Rouen in December 1870 (apparently, Prussian soldiers even used Flaubert's bed), the siege of Paris (19 ...


1

For Michel Foucault, discourse does not simply mean "verbal exchange"; in and through his work it has come to mean (quoted from Wiktionary), An institutionalized way of thinking, a social boundary defining what can be said about a specific topic (...) For example, in Madness and Civilization (Folie et déraison, 1961) he described how the Age of ...


1

There are two interesting questions posed here: 1) Which novelists – with an emphasis on the Victorian novelists – recognized contemporary changes in society and took them into account in their books? 2) Which of them, if any, expressed a need for such changes? A book could be written on these questions. Off the top of my head, from my own limited reading ...


1

A real bridge does exist, over the Eresma stream. It's south side housed a small front line republican position, though manned by regular troops, not guerillas. The remains of trenches and living quarters can still be seen here. However, the book suggests that this was to be destroyed before the Nationalists counterattacked. In reality the republican 14th ...


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