15

Please note: Since there is no source available which states on which year exactly this poem was written, it becomes difficult to predict what exact situation poet might be referring to. But considering the lifespan of poet and the meaning of the poem itself, I have written my own assumptions. If you find the year at which the poem is written, I will happily ...


10

The Hindi title "विध्वंस" (transliterated as "Vidhwans") means "catastrophe" or "destruction". I am not too familiar with Urdu, but Google Translate says that "Tahreek-e Khair" means something like "good step", as in, a "step in the right direction", which is reasonably close in meaning to ...


7

As far as I can tell, this seems not to be quite a formal, well-defined term. Rather, it's the use of an iconic cultural touchstone as shorthand for issues and tropes that come up often - and, just as the original creation can be interpreted in different ways, can be admired or criticized, people's use of the phrase "Devdas syndrome" seems to depend on their ...


7

I appreciate both the question raised and the clarificatory reply provided by Karan Desai. Having been a student of Hindi Literature I would like to provide as full a reply as possible. Harivansh Rai Bachchan had in 1926 married Shyama and she expired in 1936. Prior to marrying Amitabh Bachchan's mother Teji in 1941, Harivansh Rai went through a ...


6

It is likely that the Pandit was a member of the Zamindari aristocratic class. Historically they were administrators rather than outright owners of land, but were co-opted by the British regime as revenue collectors and to enable this they were made the possessors of the land. The position of the Zamindars changed, the zamindars were earlier the ...


5

It's a short story by Uday Prakash called "Aparadh" and it appears in a Class 5 Hindi textbook called Garima. You'll find it here. I found it by doing a Google search in Hindi for gulli danda "पोलियो" kahani, with polio in quotes (which makes it search exclusively for results where the quoted word or string of words is found verbatim) and ...


5

The soil in the poet’s garden is permeable, so that water quickly disappears into the spaces between the grains. Moreover, the poet has heard that in karst landscapes where soluble rock like limestone lies on top of insoluble rock like sandstone, subterranean rivers may flow. The poem takes these geological commonplaces and defamiliarizes them using a ...


5

While another answer had addressed statistical matters of overall life expectancy at birth, with a presumption of that rural areas having and expectancy below average, I think there are other things to consider more particular to the character in question. Premchand does not say that fifty is old, per se, he says that this woman is old at fifty. What do we ...


4

You've pretty much explained this. The key point is that while he has a business that is in demand, all her customers are also poor. This is shown by the fact that they pay partly for her services in grain, presumably because they don't have much money and she wants grain. On days when the village owner makes her work for free, she doesn't have any income, ...


4

Detailed publication information regarding Premchand's short stories—along with valuable comments on the differences between the Urdu and Hindi versions—is available in the "Notes" at the end of each of the four volumes of Premchand: the complete short stories (2017), edited by M. Asaduddin and published by Penguin Books. From the foreword by ...


3

This gets easier when you strip out the honorific titles, Maulana, Pandit, Mirza, Maulvi and Hazrat. Sharar, Sarshar, Ruswa and Hussain I think you have correctly identified. 'Mohamad Ali of Hardoi' may be 'Ahmad Ali', an Urdu writer known for his contributions to Ouhd Punch and a mentor to Sharar. I found this in the 'A Note on Abdul Halim Sharar' on page 4 ...


3

The simple answer is this link to a chart of life expectancy in India over time. As you can see, life expectancy was around 20-25 for the entire period of Premchand's life. It is likely that expectancy is lower than the average in rural areas, where the story is set. That's less than one third of life expectancy today, and half that of Europe at the same ...


2

Here's a translation that I think captures the literal sense better: Don't call (the pain of) separation bad; it is king. A body that doesn't suffer (the pain of) separation is always a graveyard. "घट / ghaT" is literally a clay pot. In Kabir, it's a common metaphor for a person's body, in the sense of physical frame (not corpse). "बिरहा / ...


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