29

No. Introduction To begin with, the question Has Odysseus been unfaithful to his wife? would not make sense to the people of ancient Greece. Such a question presupposes that the Greeks had a concept of marital love and fidelity similar to ours, which they didn't. As Stephanie Coontz has pointed out, the idea of marriage as a partnership based on romantic ...


20

TL;DR: Homer’s Ithaca is somewhere in the Ionian islands but his descriptions are hard to reconcile, so pending a really convincing archaeological find it is impossible to be sure how the descriptions relate to reality. Why do we think there might be a real ‘Ithaca’? An important first question, one that is often neglected, do we have any reason to expect ...


19

A great deal of what is believed to have happened this long ago is based on accounts written centuries later and/or archaeological finds that are open to interpretation. If Homer did exist, it shouldn't surprise us that there would be no evidence of it. If Homer didn't exist, it shouldn't surprise us that for a couple thousand years most people said he did. ...


17

Modern literature very much disputes that Homer existed. Nothing is known for certain about Homer himself, and his very existence is now disputed; the Iliad and Odyssey may have different authors, if either can be said to have an author at all. The epics are certainly the product of a long oral tradition, probably dating back to at least the 12th century ...


17

On the answer Much of the structure of this answer is based on the very clear history of #The Odyssey# and #The Illiad# written by Nicolas Bertrand in a 2009 Article (PDF). The primary sources discussed are the following, and I will try to reference them more closely in successive edits, but this is a process that takes time, as I relied on translations to ...


17

Apparently, because it was true. The Iliad as we know it was composed over some centuries, transmitted orally, before "Homer" synthesized the version that was written down. Practically every word in that last sentence is subject to debate, called the Homeric Question. But this is the version that I think is most generally agreed on, and which I think best ...


13

Ulysses is the Latin form of the Greek Odysseus, stemming from the Sicilian or alternate Latin form Ulixes. The first instance of these forms in literature that I can find is in the Odusia by Livius Andronicus. This is an early translation of the Odyssey (third century BC). The only parts of it that survive are 46 lines from 17 books of the Odyssey, but ...


10

Whether the Iliad starts in the middle depends on what the subject of the poem is. If the subject is the whole Trojan War, then certainly the poem starts in the middle, and finishes well before the end. But is that really the subject? The opening line of the poem is: μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος That is, “sing, goddess, the rage of Peleus’ son ...


10

I am not a linguist, but I think it's worth mentioning that the Odysseus→Ulysses transformation is a special case of something called the "Sabine L": some words that had "d" sounds in Old Latin (or in Greek) became "l" in later (classical) Latin. Examples include: lacrima in Latin from Old Latin dacrima, from Greek dakry from PIE *dakru- from which both ...


10

The specific Butler passage you reference can be found on Perseus line 272-348. An alternate 1924 translation by A.T. Murray may also be found there. The Murray is quite distinct from the Butler in these passages, which got me wondering about the Greek because The use of "bootless" is undoubtedly wordplay referencing Achilles' famous heel. Murray's ...


9

We can trace out some possible answers to this by examining the history of her life. Her father encouraged her interest in the classics from an early age. "My father was well-to-do, but he wasn't interested in making money; he was interested in making people use their minds"; thus, her father guided her towards the Classics, and, when she was ...


9

To begin with, we must remember that the famous Sappho 31 is preserved only in (Pseudo-)Longinus's On the Sublime, a first century work whose authorship is disputed. Wharton, in his preface, says: I have not concerned myself much with textual criticism, for I do not arrogate any power of discernment greater than that possessed by a scholar like Bergk. ...


8

There are a few gods and goddesses in ancient Greek mythology (assuming you count that as part of literature) who lead virgin lifestyles. Athena, Artemis, and Hestia come to mind as examples. Now of course, being a virgin doesn't necessarily imply being asexual - Artemis, for example, seems to recognise the idea of sexuality, and some stories even have it ...


8

From the Merriam-Webster Dictionary: useless, unprofitable a bootless attempt So we can replace the word bootless like this: The oath he swore was useless, but it made Dolon more keen on going. The oath didn't mean anything, but it made him more keen anyway. The way I'm understanding it, it's saying that it won't be kept. As Rand said, I'm not ...


8

There was a whole cycle of poems detailing the Trojan war and its aftermath. See Wikipedia. Of these, only the two attributed to Homer have survived intact. So you could think of it as starting in the middle, or you can think of it as being one installment in a long series, most installments of which have now been lost. Much of the audience would have ...


7

TL;DR: The quoted claim seems to be a speculation or flight of fancy based on a linguistic coincidence. Meanings In classical Greek, ἀνάκρουσις has two senses, according to Liddell and Scott (1889), A Greek-English Lexicon: pushing back, especially pushing a ship back, backing water; of a horse, with the bit: metaphorically, reaction against ...


6

It likely has to do with a quote by Automedon later in the Iliad: “Alcimedon, what man beside of the Achaeans is of like worth to curb and guide the spirit of [Achilles'] immortal steeds, save only Patroclus, the peer of the gods in counsel..." Source: Iliad, 17.475, A.T. Murray trans. These horses were supernatural, reputedly the offspring of a harpy ...


5

No. In fact, each poem has a closer relative within the corpus of Keats's work. There's also a stronger connection between "Endymion" and one of Shelley's poems that there is between the former and "Hyperion". Keats first used the Endymion myth in an 1816 poem, "I stood tip-toe upon a little hill". This poem uses the union of Cynthia and Endymion to ...


5

I'm going to attempt an answer with the caveats that the materialists often find my etymological ideas on names to be poetic as opposed to scientific, and that I'd want to know what Graves thought but don't have access to his Greek Myths at the moment. Gallifreyan posted an excellent link to a scholar who pondered this question. My take on the essay is ...


5

Collectively, the stories are called the Epic Cycle. They tell the whole story of the Trojan War, from the Judgment of Paris to the death of Odysseus. It includes the Iliad and the Odyssey (though the term "Epic Cycle" is often used just to refer to non-Homeric books). Like those two, the Epic Cycle is based on older, oral stories, possibly dating back as ...


5

It sounds very like lines 31–34 of Prometheus Bound: ἀνθ᾽ ὧν ἀτερπῆ τήνδε φρουρήσεις πέτραν ὀρθοστάδην, ἄυπνος, οὐ κάμπτων γόνυ: πολλοὺς δ᾽ ὀδυρμοὺς καὶ γόους ἀνωφελεῖς φθέγξῃ […] In the prose translation of Herbert Weir Smyth, that’s: Therefore on this joyless rock you must stand sentinel, erect, sleepless, your knee unbent. And many a groan ...


4

Fate is controlled by the Fates, whom no god can contradict. According to Walter Otto's The Homeric Gods (Walter F. Otto, The Homeric Gods: The Spiritual Significance of Greek Religion. 1929. Translated by Moses Hadas, Thames and Hudson, 1979), the Fates are a holdover from a primordial religious belief preceding the Olympians, including Chronos, Gaia, the ...


4

The vast majority of his Fables have origins from Ancient Greece. For example, the earliest origins of The Mouse and the Oyster (Le Rat et l'Huître), fable 9 of Book VIII, come from a Greek Anthology poem in the 1st century AD by Antiphilus of Byzantium1. Another example, The Hawk and the Nightingale (Le Milan et le Rossignol), fable 18 of Book IX, derives ...


4

In his Master's thesis, titled The peripeteia, an analysis of reversal speeches by Barbara Bush, Richard Nixon, and Lyndon B. Johnson, Christopher James Anderson of Iowa State University did exactly this, and presented some justification: It is important to note that peripity need not always be concerned with tragedy. Aristotle has defined peripeteia as ...


4

Perhaps a case can be made for Hermaphroditus. The son of Hermes and Aphrodite, he was a remarkably beautiful youth, but uninterested in sex. Or at least, the way Ovid tells it, "he did not know what love was"; and when the water nymph Salmacis offers herself to him, he spurns her. Salmacis hides until he strips to bathe in her lake. She then jumps in. ...


4

Single or Multiple Manuscrips? The editor, Demetrius Chalkokondyles (Demetrius Damilas was the printer), consulted multiple manuscripts. This is how I've found it: Chalkokondyles's editio princeps of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey has two prefaces: One, in Latin, which was written by Bernardus Nerlius, and second, in Greek, which was written by the editor ...


3

The whole crew dies, except Odysseus. He started off to the Trojan war with a whole fleet of ships. Odysseus won the victory. Then he landed on the Achaeans land, allies of Troy. He lost 72 men there. Then he came to the island of the Lotus eaters. Where three of his men were 'drunk' from eating the flower and wanted to stay, but Odysseus tied them to his ...


3

The Acritic songs are a collection of poetry from the Byzantine Empire, written in medieval Greek and dating back to around the 9th century. They're very significant in the history of Greek literature - see for instance Chapter 2 in Kōnstantinos Dēmaras, A History of Modern Greek Literature, which is devoted to them and other works inspired by them such as ...


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