8

While the narration claims this is a cryptic answer, it is more in the sense of being cryptic to the other animals than to the reader. Benjamin is the oldest animal and the reader can intuit from this that he has seen a lot of events on the farm that the other animals have not. This is the meaning of "Donkeys live a long time". "None of you ...


6

He does not literally die at the end of the novel. The concluding paragraphs make it clear that his death is metaphorical. Winston is in the Chestnut Tree Café, listening to the news of the victory over Eurasia: Ah, it was more than a Eurasian army that had perished! Much had changed in him since that first day in the Ministry of Love, but the final, ...


5

Red Lead was a material used industrially for centuries. Its applications include use as a pigment. Toxicity means that it is no longer widely used. At the period, there would have been a number of business involved in the extraction, manufacture and trade of red lead. If the job does have any significance, beyond being mundane and industrial, it is ...


4

In terms of explicit imagery, Orwell is referring to the yellow sunlight passing between the trees and making bright patterns on the ground, thusly. These similes and metaphors reflect a fairly simple 'pathetic fallacy', where Winston's mental state change and improvement (in terms of his journey from the grim city into the beautiful countryside where he ...


3

I think that Julia's room 101 was watching Winston betray her. Not so much because she was scared of him being hurt, but more so the idea of losing him. The most we ever learn that Julia ever felt passionate about was her wish to never be separated from Winston (seen in when they both say they will cheat and do a manner of terrible things for the brotherhood ...


3

In The Collected Essays, Journalism, and Letters of George Orwell, he expresses this view many times. (After the war, he reflected on how he tended to overestimate forces pushing toward socialism and underestimate on those pushing away.) The problem with identifying exactly when he said the concept first is that you have to decide exactly how close the idea ...


3

This appears to be a frequently asked question for Keep the Aspidistra Flying, and while there's no fully confirmed answer, there is at least a prominent theory. I found a few old Usenet (Google Groups) discussions about it, putting forward and supporting some theories. The most popular theory is: In Horace's Ars Poetica comes the line Parturient montes, ...


2

'Red lead' might mean specifically the red lead paint which was used as an anti-corrosive on the steelwork of ships and boats. Because of the risks of lead poisoning, it was banned from sale to the general public in 1992. Today it's "technically available in the UK but only by special licence...In practice however it has been replaced by safer ...


2

In the Tsarist system, there was an upper class of aristocracy that controlled the country and had a standard of living much higher than the general population. Then there was a revolution that overthrew that system, and then the revolution was hijacked by the Bolsheviks, who claimed to be taking the country over on behalf of the people to destroy the class ...


2

Napoleon is absent during the battle of the Cowshed in Orwell's Animal Farm. Orwell makes a point to show that though nobody spoke more fiercely about the danger of the humans and their imminent threat of reappearing on the farm, when it came to actually going to war with them, Napoleon left the fighting to the other animals. His political opponent, ...


2

Reverence is a deep respect shown to someone or something. Usually, when you revere something, you know why you do so, and it is colored by that knowledge. One reveres a mountain for its majesty, or a perfect rose for its beauty. In this case, Smith does not really understand why it is singing, but he knows it's not for a specific audience. This is ...


2

O'Brien is the party, he is the one who creates the reality for others. He is a member of the "Inner Party" and the one who creates the illusion; O'Brien is the one in charge of everything and controlling society, and he is the one that labels thought criminals so.


2

as an allegory, he represents the average bystander. -- a quote -- "life will go as it always goes -- that is, badly." //he knows what it was like with jones and comes to the conclusion that no matter who is in charge or what changes are made at the farm, it will remain an unpleasant place to be. he also knows of all the injustice occurring on ...


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