8

The quotation is from Orwell's long essay The Lion and the Unicorn. The first section of that essay is a lengthy description of what Orwell perceived to be the state of English society at the time of writing (that is, 1941). This included a lot of reflection on the position of intellectuals in English society and their prevailing attitudes to the ruling ...


5

User Gareth Rees appears to be right in his assertion that the word relates to being "on the road". A quick research suggests this is the only commonly-understood meaning of "toby" in slang. Thanks to user Spagirl who found a possible derivation in the OED. It seems to be rooted in 'tober' which originated in the Irish Traveller cant known as 'Shelta'. ...


3

Winston's thoughts immediately after talking to the old man show us fairly clearly that he is less than optimistic about the odds of anyone being able to tell him anything substantial about the days before the Revolution. From just after, still in Chapter VIII (Part 1), his inner monologue says But in effect it was unanswerable even now, since the few ...


2

Probably you're thinking of this passage from Part 3, Chapter 3 (emphasis added): Winston was struck, as he had been struck before, by the tiredness of O’Brien’s face. It was strong and fleshy and brutal, it was full of intelligence and a sort of controlled passion before which he felt himself helpless; but it was tired. There were pouches under the eyes, ...


2

I note that the two authors you cite are both English writers, and so the issue you bring up deals with how the English language acquired its extensive vocabulary. While many of the words used in writing English are words inherited from Middle English (I will refer to this as stock English), a large part of English vocabulary comes from borrowings from ...


2

I don't think so. She generally seemed very uninterested in anything political. She was not interested in reading "The Book" and didn't even understand why Winston was so excited about that photo which was proof of the Party lying. I believe she was more of a passive rebel. She had a sort of instinct to rebel against the social norms of the party but never ...


2

Some preliminary definitions might be in order before identifying whether they're "similes, metaphors, or something else": simile A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g. as brave as a lion). versus metaphor A figure of speech in ...


2

It's not entirely certain that Syme was vaporised. We know only that he is no longer around for Winston to talk with. If Syme were still useful in his work, or in something related, the Party simply could have reassigned him to another bureau and then made it look like he had been removed from all records to which Winston had access. With Syme gone Winston ...


2

An Outer Party member has been told to believe that the Party is advancing the common good, and believes that this is what the Party should be doing. If he comes to believe that the Party, far from advancing the common good, is actually the chief obstacle to that desideratum, he becomes a threat to the Party. On the other hand, a Thought Police apparatchik ...


1

The cat represents both intelligence and unsavory part of society, in a way. In short, the cat represents secret intelligence services, specifically civilian ones (KGB, CIA etc). It's spy and spy community. The cat always lurks in the shadows, listens to other animals, watches over them. It is also the only animal which leaves the farm and visits other ...


1

In his 1943 article, “The Round World and the Winning of the Peace,” English geographer Halford Mackinder described Britain as a 'moated aerodrome' in the 'Midland Ocean' (ie the North Atlantic and surrounding countries, ie the US, Canada, France, and the UK). It's been suggested already that the Ingsoc slogan in 1984 ('Who controls the past controls the ...


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