14

By “the red ant heaps of Toulon”, Hugo means the Bagne de Toulon, a notorious prison where the convicts wore red jackets and red caps. This is the prison where Jean Valjean serves nineteen years for stealing a loaf of bread, in Hugo’s Les Misérables. L’habillement du forçat qui est différent pour chaque bagne, se compose à Toulon, dit l’auteur, d’une ...


7

Evidence For this answer, I considered all the books until Asterix in Belgium, i.e., all books with contributions from both, Uderzo and Goscinny. Since I only have the German editions, I won’t provide direct quotes. Page counts refer to the ones in the panels (usually at the bottom left) and should be independent of the edition. A: with potion This ...


7

No. Asterix is very far from any drug culture, and from methamphetamine usage during war. Magic potions are older than print. They appear in Greek mythology, for example (Jason puts the dragon to sleep with a potion, Circe turns men into swine with a potion, not to mention love potions). I can't name a potion that grants strength or invincibility, but I put ...


7

The charcoal connection is found with the ‘Bougnats of Paris’. From France écotours: in the 18th century, the agricultural crisis forced thousands of French countrymen to leave their homes in search of work. The Auvergne people left the volcanic soil of their homeland for the capital. There, the new Parisians built a community where they became known as “...


6

The sentence with the text in bold means: The little cardinals of the Church of Letters that then bustled about between the Holy See of Sébastien-Bottin street and the Sistine Chapel of Jacob street promulgated the canon law of the novel and poetry. After a bit more research, I found Emmnuel Le Roy Ladurie's review of Régis Debray's Teachers, Writers, ...


6

A Google search for the term reveals that it means the same thing as "buck teeth", large front teeth. In French, buck teeth are called dents à l'anglaise, literally "English teeth." Also here: dents à l'anglaise Dents longues et proéminentes It's apparently not in current usage.


6

Here is the entire sentence from the English translation on Wikisource: During this time, the farewell ceremony was taking place. I have already said that this magnificent function was being given on the occasion of the retirement of M. Debienne and M. Poligny, who had determined to "die game," as we say nowadays. Here is the corresponding part ...


5

UPDATE: I have figured out where they got the quote form. Googling the original quote in Croatian shows that the line appears in the book Zlatna knjiga svjetske poezije za djecu by Zvonimir Balog, which Google translate says means The Golden Book of World Poetry for Children. MY ORIGINAL ANSWER, which shows that Jean de la Fontaine never wrote anything ...


5

The ‘which’ and ‘where’ parts of the question were answered by Maupassant’s biographer Francis Steegmuller: A smart American publisher and bookseller named M. Walter Dunne, whose specialty was large and showily produced “sets,” felt that the time had come to confront the American public with all of Maupassant; and he issued [starting in 1903], in seventeen ...


5

The article mentioned in the original version of the question is not "Boule de Suif" (which is a novella) but the article "Les Soirées de Médan" that Maupassant published in the newspaper Le Gaulois on 27 April 1880. At the time, de Maupassant was still unknown as an author. The "soirées" he talks about are evenings that several authors spent at the house ...


5

The context of a word governs its meaning of course; but here are some usages of your words in question. There is not much of a mystery here. τι (ti) is the genitive form of τις (tis) is an interrogative pronoun in direct, indirect, and rhetorical questions meaning “who?” “which (one)?”; “what?” usages include but are not limited to the following: In ...


5

I just figured out the answer to my own question. By the "Red ant heaps of Toulon", Hugo most likely means the Bagne of Toulon, the prison that is also prominently featured in "Les Misérables" as the place in which the protagonist Jean Valjean is imprisoned for many years. It was, by modern definition, more of a forced labor camp than a ...


4

Camus loved the sea and nature generally. His unfinished early novel La Mort heureuse contains a scene in which Patrice Mersault goes swimming in the sea; the scene is described in very sensuous terms. (See Albert Camus, La Mort heureuse, Le bain de mer, in French.) So on a very literal level, Mersault can be read as mer (sea) and sault/saut (jump; the ...


4

The 1906 Clarendon Press edition of the French text of the novel, edited by Léon Delbos, is available at the Internet Archive and has comprehensive notes starting at page 353: Page 1. (Heading of chapter.) La Grand’Salle. The apostrophe was first used by French grammarians between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, under the mistaken idea that an e had ...


4

I believe Anouilh hints at this in the preface to the play: Je n'ai pas été chercher dans les livres qui était vraiment Henri II - ni même Becket. J'ai fait le roi dont j'avais besoin et le Becket ambigu dont j'avais besoin. My translation: I haven't gone reading books about who Henry II really was - nor even Becket, for that matter. I have created the ...


4

If you are asking about the historical reasons, then asking in History.SE might be better. From the literature point of view the answer lies in text: This class of women is consigned by our laws entirely to the discretion of the police. The latter do what they please, punish them, as seems good to them, and confiscate at their will those two sorry things ...


3

At least the early albums in the Asterix series don't directly tell if the potion gives invincibility in addition to superhuman strength and speed. Actually, they do: the potion is often referred to as “the magic potion that makes one invincible”. I don't recall offhand if the word “invincible” (invincible) appears in the first album (Asterix the Gaul — ...


3

One of the novel's paradoxes is that Camus employs a first-person narration, which normally allows the reader access to the character's inner thoughts and feelings (see e.g. Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre), but does not give us much insight into Meursault's thoughts and feelings. Meursault admits to the examining magistrate (Part Two, Chapter I) that he has ...


3

The most likely candidate is Félix Fénéon (22 June 1861 – 29 February 1944). A collection of his short fiction Novels in Three Lines (Nouvelles en trois lignes in French) was translated by Luc Sante and published in 2007. A review by Julian Barnes appeared in the London Review of Books on 4 October 2007. ("Nouvelle" does not mean "novel"; it refers to a ...


3

The answer to my question is probably much more straightforward than the two previous answers suggest. According to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, the Sadducees believed that there were "no rewards or penalties after death" (Wikipedia's words). It is in the light of this statement that I interpret the narrator's words: if there are no penalties after ...


2

As far as I know, the city (German: Stadt) is not an important concept in Hegel's philosophy. However, the state (German: Staat) is an important concept, especially in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right (German: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts). Since the German words Stadt and Staat differ by only one letter, I strongly suspect that either Camus ...


2

The traditional distinction between syllabic (French) and metrical (English) verse is misleading. French has long and short vowels (long and short syllables) just like any other language. English poetry, on the other hand, is "accented" (tricky term here) by long syllables or so-called "stresses" just like French, Italian, Latin and Greek verse. If you don'...


2

The book Traité des impôts en France: considérés sous le rapport du droit, de l'économie politique et de l'économie politique by Edouard Vignes (3rd edition, 1872) discusses the tax system in France in the second half of the 19th century. 1872 is admittedly a bit later than the year in which the novel is set, but apparently the tax system did not change much ...


2

In 1946, Stuart Gilbert translated the novel's first sentence as “Mother died today” instead of “Mother has died today”. Since "today" implies a time frame that is not yet closed, you would expect the present perfect instead of the past simple, but the past simple sounds terser. (For the rules regarding past simple and the present perfect, I assume ...


2

On closer inspection, the lines appear fraught with ambiguity. In the French newspaper Libération (20.03.2008), Bashung said [Bleu pétrole] est peut-être un album humblement politique (...) I.e. possibly a humbly political album. So, naturally, people looked for a political interpretation of the song "Résidents de la république". For example, pink ("...


2

According to the entry LOUIS-FERDINAND CÉLINE, De Destouches à Céline in the online Encyclopædia Universalis, c'est à sa grand-mère maternelle, Céline Guillou, qu'il empruntera son nom de plume Literal translation: "it is from his maternal grandmother, Céline Guillou, that he will borrow his pen name". In the French Wikipedia article about the author, ...


2

"Legion of Honor": initially a very high honor created by Napoleon Bonaparte, but can be gifted to civilians and as such tends to designate an old, respectable Frenchman who has done service to his country. Source "General Council": now called the Departmental council, this is the department-level government. Essentially, what this says ...


2

I couldn't find if it really comes from a 1955 interview or not, but Camus wrote such a claim in his Preface to The Stranger (January 1955), available here in English translation (emphasis mine): One would therefore not be much mistaken to read The Stranger as the story of a man who, without any heroics, agrees to die for the truth. I also happen to say, ...


2

The famous Littré dictionary (four volumes, 1880s) provides the following definition of souteneur: 2 Particulièrement, celui qui se fait le champion d'une maison de jeu ou de quelque mauvais lieu. Un souteneur de filles. Free translation: Particularly, someone who acts as the champion/defender of a gambling house or some house of ill repute. A ...


2

According to the Wiktionnaire: Le souteneur Celui qui, vivant du gain d’une prostituée, prétend assurer, en retour, sa protection. Le proxénète Personne qui tire profit de la prostitution d’autrui ou bien la favorise." Le souteneur: gives protection for money. Le proxénète: just looks for profit. La Celestina is a good example of this.


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