8

According to the French philosopher and historian Étienne Gilson, the explanation that the birds use the air's humidity as a source of water is implausible because in that case, they wouldn't take flight in the first place. Gilson points out that according to Aristotelean cosmology and medieval scholasticism, birds fly in a zone situated between Earth and ...


7

The original edition of the first novel, Pantagruel, was most likely published in 1532 by Claude Nourry in Lyon and only one copy of this edition has survived. This copy is in the archives of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF), where it is identified as RES-Y2- 2146 (Pantagruel, ed. Defaux: 19). A scanned version of this 1532 edition can be browsed ...


7

The third one reads as a completely different work because it is, in fact, a completely different work. The first two are different versions of the same work, both by Rabelais. The first paragraph of chapter I “De l'origine et antiquité du grand Pantagruel” of Pantagruel, (full title: Pantagruel, Roy des dipsodes, restitué à son naturel, avec ses faictz et ...


5

This is Rabelais, so yes, you can expect a lot of meaning that is not apparent to the casual reader, especially the casual modern reader. Some names are classic references (you've probably spotted Goliath, Polyphemus, Sisyphus…), others are allusions to more recent authors, others are puns, others are purely made up to sound in a certain way. My answer is ...


3

In Fragments of Empedocles, translated by John Burnet (hosted on Wikisource), I found the following statements: (55) Sea the sweat of the earth. (...) (56) Salt was solidified by the impact of the sun's beams. But these fragments don't mention Phaeton. Phaeton is not mentioned either on the page Empedocles of Acragas, which also contains the above ...


2

According to Pierre Michel's edition of the novel, the list combines names from the Bible, Greek and Roman literature, medieval literature and names that Rabelais invented. The list parodies Matthew, chapter 1: "Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren; (..)". It is also worth mentioning that the number of ...


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