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We, in Turkey, use the word 'Pehlivan' as a synonym of 'wrestlers' (we do not use 'Pehliva' but phonetically it must be the singular form of 'Pehlivan') and metaphorically for 'valiant', 'brave', 'gallant' men. According to Etimoloji Türkçe, this word is based etymologically on 'pahlavān پهلوان ' (a Late-Persian word) which again means 'valiant', 'brave.' ...


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The cypress was the most popular tree for Persian gardens. Roses also have a long history. Therefore, giving the cypress and the rose lets the poet avoid using a generic "tree" and "flower" and use archetypal garden plants. For instance, Omar Khayyam made use of both Iram indeed is gone with all his Rose, And Jamshyd's Sev'n-ring'd Cup ...


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If Wikipedia can be trusted, the oldest surviving manuscript is the Florence Shahnameh, dating from 1217 CE, "200 years after the final completion of the epic poem in 1010". This manuscript is not illustrated. Also according to Wikipedia, the Florence Shahnameh is "is incomplete and contains only half of the Shahnameh." Since Wikipedia ...


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