11

Initially, there isn't much. The final words of Part I read this: I wanted to hear the murmur of its water again, to escape from the sum and the effort and the women's tears, and to relax in the shade again. But when I got nearer, I saw that Raymond's Arab had come back. He was alone. He was lying on his back, with his hands behind his head ... As far as ...


10

I'm not sure if whole books have been written on the topic, but at least whole book chapters have been. I haven't read this book, but I'll share my first impression. One thing to note is that the English translation you quote is reasonably faithful. It slightly misses the effect of the original, however, in that it doesn't use a future tense. A more ...


7

In this chapter, Camus is comparing "the Christian and Marxist world," and finds that the two have much more in common with each other than either does with the "ancient world" – by which he largely means Aristotelian Greece. "For the Christian, as for the Marxist, nature must be subdued;" he writes. It may help to understand if we restore the full text of ...


6

Albert Camus' essay L'Homme révolté (1951, The Rebel) contains a chapter entitled "Roman et révolte", in which the author says (emphasis mine), Qu’est-ce que le roman, en effet, sinon cet univers où l’action trouve sa forme, où les mots de la fin sont prononcés, les êtres livrés aux êtres, où toute vie prend le visage du destin ? Le monde ...


6

So from the context, here's my understanding: A common trend that's observed from a lot of A Happy Death is the treatment of women as mere objects, rather than as human beings. This is portrayed quite well in the beginning of that paragraph: The natural stupidity which glowed in her eyes emphasized her remote, impassive expression. The remark, "hello, ...


4

This is conjectural, but just before the passage in question, Camus writes something like We sail across spaces so vast they seem unending. Sun and moon rise and fall in turn, on the same thread of light and night. Days at sea, as similar each to the other as happiness . . . which to me echos some (but not all) of this passage in R. L. Stevenson's In the ...


4

Camus loved the sea and nature generally. His unfinished early novel La Mort heureuse contains a scene in which Patrice Mersault goes swimming in the sea; the scene is described in very sensuous terms. (See Albert Camus, La Mort heureuse, Le bain de mer, in French.) So on a very literal level, Mersault can be read as mer (sea) and sault/saut (jump; the ...


3

One of the novel's paradoxes is that Camus employs a first-person narration, which normally allows the reader access to the character's inner thoughts and feelings (see e.g. Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre), but does not give us much insight into Meursault's thoughts and feelings. Meursault admits to the examining magistrate (Part Two, Chapter I) that he has ...


3

The answer to my question is probably much more straightforward than the two previous answers suggest. According to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, the Sadducees believed that there were "no rewards or penalties after death" (Wikipedia's words). It is in the light of this statement that I interpret the narrator's words: if there are no penalties after ...


2

I cannot speak to the Camus misspelling in the French, however, in the context of the New Testament (NT) the Sadducees are (ironically) considered heretics by the larger more prominent faction of religious leaders--the Pharisees. It is the Sadducees (chief priests (Lk 22:2)) who are the ones ultimately responsible for the crucifixion of Christ—who condemned ...


2

Even though only François Achille Bazaine was accused of treason (and sentenced for it), it appears that his family name became a synonym for treason. Bazaine surrendered an army of 180,000 to the Prussians in October 1870. In Paris livré, published in 1871, Gustave Flourens already used the phrase "les Bazaine": (...) ce gouvernement de traîtres ...


2

The original French text is: Jusqu’ici chaque fois que Mersault avait lié avec une femme les premiers gestes qui engagent, conscient du malheur qui veut que l’amour et le désir s’expriment de la même façon, il songeait à la rupture avant d’avoir serré cet être dans ses bras. My literal translation: So far each time that Mersault had associated with a ...


2

As far as I know, the city (German: Stadt) is not an important concept in Hegel's philosophy. However, the state (German: Staat) is an important concept, especially in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right (German: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts). Since the German words Stadt and Staat differ by only one letter, I strongly suspect that either Camus ...


2

In 1946, Stuart Gilbert translated the novel's first sentence as “Mother died today” instead of “Mother has died today”. Since "today" implies a time frame that is not yet closed, you would expect the present perfect instead of the past simple, but the past simple sounds terser. (For the rules regarding past simple and the present perfect, I assume ...


2

I couldn't find if it really comes from a 1955 interview or not, but Camus wrote such a claim in his Preface to The Stranger (January 1955), available here in English translation (emphasis mine): One would therefore not be much mistaken to read The Stranger as the story of a man who, without any heroics, agrees to die for the truth. I also happen to say, ...


1

The most striking characteristic that Camus's The Fall / La Chute and Daoud's Meursault, contre-enquête have in common is that they are written as a second-person narrative. In La Chute, the main character tells his story to another person whom he addresses as "vous" ("you", polite form); neither the main character nor the other person formally introduce ...


1

Both the newspaper article that Meursault finds in his prison cell and the play Le Malentendu / The Misunderstanding are inspired by a newspaper article that Camus cut out off an Algerian newspaper in June 1935, which reported a real event (B. Pingaud: L'Étranger d'Albert Camus. Gallimard, 1992; page 145). The story's significance becomes clear when we ...


1

During the first half of the 20th century, 90% of the French were Catholics and 95% of burials in France were religious burials (Wikipédia: Église catholique en France). Assuming that Catholicism and catholic burials were just as widespread in French Algeria as in "mainland" France, Maman's wish for a religious burial would be completely ...


1

I haven't read this book and I may be wrong as I don't know the whole context but reading out the sentence, I can interpret it as: Everthing is temporary. There is a simple yet powerful statement "Time heals all wounds" which means pain doesnot last forever and in the future we will forget and move on. Same can be said for happiness as it doesn't ...


1

The first sentence, in French, contains an ambiguity about time which can't be translated into English. The original line is: "Aujourd'hui, maman est morte. Où peut-être hier, je ne sais pas." In written French the past historic tense is normally used, but as this novel has a first person narrator, he uses the "passé composé" tense normally used in everyday ...


1

There are two main approaches to finding an explanation to the killing of the Arab. One is based on the novel's meaning (i.e. looking beyond character analysis); another approach looks beyond over character motivation to find motives that are not apparent at the surface. What does not work well is looking for motivation at the surface level of the text. This ...


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