My guess is that it had a nice ring to it, though maybe Shakespeare was making a subconscious or conscious connection.
- The salient connection I find is that Polonius, like Odysseus, is a bit of a trickster.
Odysseus was renowned for his cleverness specifically. He would do things that were dishonorable (such as murdering enemies in their sleep) and still receive the favor of the gods. Polonius spies on people and uses his daughter to manipulate Hamlet.
Laertes is the son of Polonius, not the father, so maybe that has something to do with the inverted fate of Polonius compared to Odysseus.
Both Laertes are sympathetic characters.