Crawford translates the opening of the second rune as:
Then arose old Wainamoinen
With his feet upon the island
but in the Finnish original this is:
Nousi siitä Väinämöinen
jalan kahen kankahalle
Looking in a dictionary I find nousi = ‘arose’; siitä = ‘of it’; jalan = ‘on foot’; kahen = ‘two’; kankahalle = ‘materials, surfaces’. So there is no word meaning ‘old’ in these lines: evidently Crawford inserted it for the sake of the metre.
Kirby translates these lines as follows:
Then did Väinämöinen, rising,
Set his feet upon the surface
So why did Crawford pick the word ‘old’ for the sake of the metre, rather than some other single-syllable word? Well, the vast majority of occurrences of the name Väinämöinen in the Finnish text are prefixed with vanha = ‘old’. In the second rune alone, the phrase vanha Väinämöinen appears twelve times. (This kind of repetition is a common feature of orally transmitted epic poetry because the reciter needs a set of stock phases that fit the metre. In classical verse these phrases are known as Homeric epithets.) So it is understandable for Crawford to use the epithet ‘old’ without paying too much attention to whether it would be literally correct in this line. However, since Lönnrot chose to not to use vanha in this line, perhaps because of the difficulty raised in the question, I think Kirby’s version is an improvement, even though it uses ‘did’ as a filler word. (I’d prefer a combination of the two versions: “Then arising, Väinämöinen”.)
The other lines quoted in the question seem to be explained by line 5. In Kirby’s translation this is:
There he dwelt, while years passed over,
I guess enough years passed in this line for him to be ‘old’.