Content Note: Discussion of the sexual assault of a minor, and "evidence" of the innocence or guilt of possible suspects.
Atonement revolves around Briony, who as a child is the only witness to Lola being raped. Briony doesn't get a look at the rapist, but she's convinced it was poor neighbor Robbie - and testifies as much to the police. Meanwhile, the book clearly implies the true rapist is Paul Marshall, the chocolate manufacturer who Lola later, achingly, marries.
But by the end of the book, we learn that we are not reading a neutral narration of the events -- the entire book is revealed to be written by Briony, out of her guilt over accusing Robbie. And an unreliable one as well; she says how she's made changes and touches and written it from memory at best.
It's all very tragic -- except now we need to reassess everything we thought we knew about the actual incident.
- The signs we thought were a clear implication of Marshall - scratches on his arm, lavishing attention on Lola - are no longer subtle authorial hints; they're tiny shreds of unreliable evidence that don't make sense for Briony to have remembered with any measure of certainty.
- The signs we saw of Robbie's affability - e.g. the justification of clumsiness for sending Briony's sister a lewd letter - are now entirely fabricated.
As far as I can tell, this casts the story in a rather different light. While Briony has undoubtedly done Robbie wrong by perjuring herself, the book's assumption that Robbie is innocent and Marshall is guilty doesn't seem to have any concrete support. Unless I've missed something?
Is there any reliable evidence that Briony was actually witness to, as to who the rapist was?