I'm trying to find a translation of HIPPIATRICA, Hippiatrica Berolinensia, preferably an interlinear Greek/English version. I'm especially interested in chapter 20 and references to the Greek word "θλῖψεως" usually translated as "affliction," "pressure," or "oppression."

  • Awesome Gareth! I'm still trying to locate an English translation of this text somewhere. I have to believe it's out there!
    – ed huff
    Commented Sep 22, 2022 at 13:32
  • It’s not in the Loeb Classical Library as near as I can tell, which would have been the most likely source of a translation. It may not exist—it is a somewhat obscure text and late antiquity plus the veterinary topic makes it unlikely to be read outside of specialists who would probably prefer the untranslated text. Commented Sep 22, 2022 at 19:09
  • I love research, but I fear you're probably right as far as an English translation because of the highly specialized nature of this work. Thank you though for the conformation!
    – ed huff
    Commented Sep 22, 2022 at 19:18
  • I agree with @D.A.Hosek: your project seems to have taken you to the point where you need to learn Greek to make progress. Commented Sep 22, 2022 at 19:19
  • 1
    Also, despite the name, latin.stackexchange.com also does Greek stuff. Commented Sep 22, 2022 at 19:46

1 Answer 1


This is the sentence that you are asking about:

Ἐπινενότηται δὲ παρὰ Σαρμάταις, ἔτι νεογνῶν ὄντων θλίβειν καὶ οὕτως εὐνουχίζειν, ἵνα μὴ τοῦτο συμβῇ.

The Sarmatians are not [ἐπινενότηται], for they press newborn animals and so castrate them, so that this does not happen.

Hippiatrica Berolensia XX.5. In Eugen Oder & Karl Hoppe, eds. (1924). Corpus Hippiatricorum Graecorum. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner (1971).

A footnote gives the alternative reading περὶ θλίψεως πώλων νεογνῶν (for they press newborn foals) in manuscript g. The words θλίβειν and θλίψεως both mean “press, oppress, crush”, in context presumably referring to the crushing of the blood vessels and spermatic cord attached to the colt’s testes, a technique still used today.

I was unable to translate ἐπινενότηται, but in context it needs to be something bad that could happen if the horses were not gelded, for example “thrown” or “trampled”. There is a similar passage in Strabo which explains that the Sarmatians gelded their horses to make them more manageable:

ἴδιον δὲ τοῦ Σκυθικοῦ καὶ τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ παντὸς ἔθνους τὸ τοὺς ἵππους ἐκτέμνειν εὐπειθείας χάριν: μικροὶ μὲν γάρ εἰσιν, ὀξεῖς δὲ σφόδρα καὶ δυσπειθεῖς.

It is a custom peculiar to all the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes, to castrate their horses, in order to make them more tractable, for although they are small, yet they are spirited, and difficult to manage.

Strabo (c. 24). Geography 7.4.8. Translated by W. Falconer (1903). The Geography of Strabo. London: George Bell & Sons.

  • Thank you for your reply — so sorry for my late response as I've been on the road. The reference that started this thread — 2. [select] crushing, castration, “πώλων” Hippiatr. 20. (pertaining to 'θλῖψις' in 'perseus.tufts.edu') — was an esoteric link which lost me at a certain point but which you've very nicely cleared up mentioning this mysterious manuscript g. Again, thanks fo much!
    – ed huff
    Commented Oct 6, 2022 at 23:31
  • @edhuff Can you describe your research and how it led you to the entry for θλῖψις in Liddell & Scott? Commented Oct 7, 2022 at 6:54
  • Gareth, I'd be glad to fill you in on my research. Unfortunately, I'm on the road again from KY., to Memphis, TN., today, so I'll catch up with you this evening. Again, thank you for your input! For the moment, I attended seminary and still translate scripture from the Greek and Hebrew. But the difference between NT Gk. (κοινή) and classical is like day and night. If I may use the analogy, the difference between 'blue collar' and 'white collar.'
    – ed huff
    Commented Oct 7, 2022 at 13:27
  • @edhuff So you're looking at Strong's Greek 2347? Commented Oct 8, 2022 at 9:34

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