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Having just reread Hemingway's novel To Have and Have Not, I'm fuzzy on the protagonist's motive for his betrayal of the Chinese immigrants. It's not hard to understand why this former cop has turned to human smuggling -- he needs money to support his family. But he strangles the smuggler and sets the boatload of immigrants ashore back in Cuba rather than taking them to Florida. Is he convinced that if he continues with the plan, he'll be killed? Is the purpose of the initial bar scene and gangster shootout to enhance the plausibility of this inherently somewhat implausible plot-driver, which is that smuggling very frequently involves betrayal, because smugglers are so paranoid about being ratted out? (Later smuggling actions in the book certainly involve a lot of violent betrayal against Harry.)

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