Following links from another SE site, I ended up on the Wikipedia page for the poem "Old Ironsides" about the eponymous ship of the US Navy. Wikipedia tells us (with sources) about how this poem came to be written:
In September 1830, [the author] read an article in the Boston Daily Advertiser about the Navy's plans to dismantle the historic USS Constitution. Startled, he was moved to write "Old Ironsides" to express his opposition to the scrapping. The poem was published in the Advertiser the next day and was soon reprinted by papers in New York, Philadelphia, and Washington.
However, reading the poem itself, the context doesn't seem clear to me purely from the text of the poem. It's clear that it concerns a famous naval vessel, and that the poet feels something is a fate worse than being sunk:
The meteor of the ocean air
Shall sweep the clouds no more.
Oh, better that her shattered hulk
Should sink beneath the wave;
When this was first published, how were readers meant to know what it was about? Am I just being dense and it would've been clear to contemporary readers that the poem must be about that particular ship and the particular fate of being dismantled? Was it originally published with a note to say it was a response to the previous day's article? Was it obvious from context since readers would remember the previous day's article?
Mostly I'm curious about whether in-text evidence alone was meant to be enough to make clear the theme of the poem, or whether extratextual clarification was always needed (like I needed the extratextual detail of the Wikipedia page to understand what the poem was about)?