Heteroglossia is an interesting and thoughtful literary term introduced by the Russian linguist Mikhail Bakhtin in his “Discourse in the Novel” in 1934. Heteroglossia describes the coexistence of varieties within a single “linguistic code”. Bakhtin argues that the power of the novel originates in the coexistence of, and conflict between, different types of speech: the speech of characters, the speech of narrators, and even the speech of the author.

Can we see the elements of heteroglossia in the novels with inter-textual references such as the works of Umberto Eco (The Name of the Rose, Foucault's Pendulum)?

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