A quote from Seabiscuit: An American Legend by Laura Hillenbrand:
The horseless carriage was just arriving in San Francisco, and its debut was turning into one of those colorfully unmitigated disasters that bring misery to everyone but historians. Consumers were staying away from the “devilish contraptions” in droves. In San Francisco in 1903, the horse and buggy was not going the way of the horse and buggy.
I know horse and buggy literally means horse carriage, so in this case, does it mean carriage had special status at the time, which is different than what we commonly comprehend? But I think this should have something to do with automobiles since this chapter is mainly focusing on how people repelled cars.