The Frankfurt School is a school of social theory and philosophy associated with the University of Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research (German: Institut für Sozialforschung, IfS). It is known for its Critical Theory, which Wikipedia describes as follows:
In Traditional and Critical Theory (1937), Max Horkheimer defined critical theory as social critique meant to effect sociologic change and realize intellectual emancipation, by way of enlightenment that is not dogmatic in its assumptions.[...] The purpose of critical theory is to analyze the true significance of the ruling understandings (the dominant ideology) generated in bourgeois society, by showing that the dominant ideology misrepresents how human relations occur in the real world, and how such misrepresentations function to justify and legitimate the domination of people by capitalism.
One of the philosophers and thinkers associated with the Frankfurt School is György Lukács, who is best known in the field of literary criticism for his work The Theory of the Novel / Die Theorie des Romans. The section on criticism of the Frankfurt School cites The Theory of the Novel as a work published in 1971, but the German edition of that work Die Theorie des Romans was published in 1920 (and written in the years 1914-1915), long before Horkheimer's Traditionelle und kritische Theorie, cited above, and before the establishment of the Frankfurt School itself. (1971 was when the English translation of Die Theorie des Romans was published.)
What Wikipedia describes as the purpose of Critical Theory ("to analyze the true significance of the ruling understandings (the dominant ideology) generated in bourgeois society etc") can be perfectly done in literary criticism. For this reason, I would like to find out whether literary theory (not just criticism) has been influenced by Critical Theory, and, if yes, if there is something like a leading theorist in this area. I am especially interested in literary theory that predates the trend in cultural studies to subsume literary studies that emerged in the 1960s or 1970s. (I have capitalised "Critical Theory" in order to refer to philosophies that emerged from the Frankfurt School and to emphasise I am not using the term as a synonym for literary theory.)
 This is not intended to ask for opinions from Stack Exchange users. When reading about literary theory, it is easy to find out, for example, that Stephen Greenblatt established New Historicism and that Raymond Williams developed Cultural Materialism. I am looking for a leading figure or a seminal publication on Critical Theory applied to literature.