So in To Kill A Mockingbird, Atticus kills a mad dog. He does it with one shot.
Is there some more symbolism to this or is it just an event?
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This scene is meant to reveal more about Atticus to Scout. When he kills the mad dog--and does so expertly, with one shot--it shows Scout that there is more to him than a lawyer and a father. He knows how to shoot and he's good at it.
“Take him, Mr. Finch.” Mr. Tate handed the rifle to Atticus; Jem and I nearly fainted.
This illustrates my point well; Jem and Scout have no idea about him, really. This also develops Atticus's character for the reader. He can shoot and he's good at it, but he hates to and he hasn't in thirty years. It can also be seen as a symbol for the entire Tom Robinson trial.
It foreshadows the death of Ewell in a way:
The mad dog has rabies which is a disease and that is why it's mad, Atticus quotes that "Maycomb's usual disease is racism." Therefore, the dog is symbolised as racism and Atticus is the only shot they have at killing this dog and he is the only shot at the Tom Robinson case and showing the town what real courage is. So if Atticus has an ability that can help the town and stop the 'disease' from spreading then he will and he tries.