Content warning: the story, and this question, concern implied mutilation.
In R. K. Narayan's short story "The Edge", which I read as part of his 1982 collection Malgudi Days, the knife sharpener Ranga is picked up by a friendly man in a car painted with "TWO WILL DO, a propaganda for birth control". He is taken to a camp in the countryside, offered food and money, and asked a number of questions about his age and family. Then they unexpectedly lay him on a table and prepare for a surgical operation on him - the implication being that they wish to castrate him. He runs away and the story ends.
He recollected his butcher friend reading from a newspaper how the government was opening camps all over the country where men and women were gathered and operated upon so that they could have no children.
My question is: did anything like this really happen? The time in which this story is set is as unclear as Ranga's age, but did any government of India attempt to organise castration camps? Or if not the government, any other organisation? Or were there really rumours in the newspapers of such things, even if unfounded?