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The poem "The Witches' Frolic" from The Ingoldsby Legends (1889) by Thomas Ingoldsby describes a situation when three witches (Old Goody Jones, Goody Price, and Madge Gray) and a man (Robin) stole into the vicarage's cellar and indulged in revelry. These thieves laughed so loud that all the members of the vicarage awoke and headed to the cellar. The poem continues:

On, on to the cellar! away! away!
On, on, to the cellar without more delay!
The whole posse rush onwards in battle array.
Conceive the dismay of the party so gay,
Old Goody Jones, Goody Price, and Madge Gray,
When the door bursting wide, they descried the allied
Troops, prepared for the onslaught, roll in like a tide,
And the spits, and the tongs, and the pokers beside! —

Can I interpret the bolded part as "while Old Goody Jones, Goody Price, and Madge Gray were conceiving the dismay of the party (the whole posse) so gaily"?

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No.

"Conceive" here is in the imperative form, an instruction to the reader. The "party so gay" refers to the revellers in the cellar ("gay" here meaning happy or lively). You might rephrase it as:

Imagine the dismay of Old Goody Jones, Goody Price, and Madge Gray, partying so gaily, when ...

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