Please note: Since there is no source available which states on which year exactly this poem was written, it becomes difficult to predict what exact situation poet might be referring to. But considering the lifespan of poet and the meaning of the poem itself, I have written my own assumptions. If you find the year at which the poem is written, I will happily edit the answer accordingly.
Notes on translation
The translation is not correct. First, let me clarify the meaning of a few words and improve the translation of this poem which will automatically clarify its central meaning:
- जगती does not mean Earth, it means "Develop" (You confused जगती with जगत)
- संसृति does not mean Universe, it means "Convergence or merging into one or unity" (You might have confused संसृति and सृष्टि)
- बंधन and प्रतिबंध do not mean "ruling over", they mean "being restricted or constrained or pressurized"
Therefore, a proper translation of the poem is:
मानव पर जगती का शासन, - There is a constant pressure of (so called) development on humans
जगती पर संसृति का बंधन, - Development is restricted by unity (being one)
संसृति को भी और किसी के प्रतिबंधों में रहना होगा! - Anyone else will oppose (restrict) convergence (unity)
साथी, सब कुछ सहना होगा! - (And therefore) You will have to tolerate this all, my friend.
So, the central meaning of the poem is:
- Humans are in blind race of so called development (material,
architectural, ornamental development) instead of maintaining peace,
harmony and religious oneness (unity, convergence). There is no coordination but a fierce
competition (of proving which nation is stronger and better than other).
- This constant pressure of "developing" restricts unity (among humans
and nations). (Line 2)
- The leaders (politicians) manipulate the definition of "unity" and
restricts the very meaning of "Development of All" policy by keeping
races, and nations divided.(Line 3)
- Therefore, ironically, the same humans have to tolerate this all
True development is not in proving how powerful a nation or race is, but in unity, oneness and convergence. But convergence and unity are manipulated (restricted) by the same humans to get power (personal development). This ultimately leads the same humans to suffer.
Coming to question..
What circumstances the poet is referring to?
Well, I found no source which shows the exact year in which this poem was written. But Harivanshrai (born in 1907) was living in that era where India was ruled over by the British, and the entire World went to war twice (the First and Second World Wars). So we can assume, that the poem might be referring to those wars and worthless conflicts happening.
On a personal note, We can also assume that this piece would have been written for his son Amitabh Bachchan when he was dumped by the same people who had made him a star.